Evaluation of Power System Reliability Incorporating Protection System Miscoordination

Document Type : Research Article


1 Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran

2 Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran


The operation of protection systems has a considerable impact on power system reliability. The main reason for cascading outages is protection system misoperation. Protection systems affect power system reliability from two perspectives: First, incorrect operation of the protection system due to the failure of any of its components that causes failure to operate or undesired tripping. Second is the incorrect operation of the protection system due to the incorrect setting of relays. In the second case, the protection system is healthy, and incorrect operation is only the result of the erroneous setting of relays. In this paper, an analysis of power system reliability regarding failure and incorrect settings of the protection system is paid. This paper proposes an eight-state Markov model for a transmission line and its protection system incorporating protection system miscoordination distingue from failure to operate and undesired trip. The situation of network lines in the period of simulation time has been determined by the sequential Monte Carlo method, and the reliability indices such as Loss of Load Probability (LOLP), Loss of Load Expectation (LOLE), Expected Energy Not Supplied (EENS), and Expected Frequency of Load Curtailment (EFLC) are calculated. The proposed model is applied to a 6-bus IEEE RBTS network, and the reliability indices are calculated and compared from both perspectives to show the importance of the proposed model.


Main Subjects

[1] R. Hu, X. Liu, Y. Huang, C. Chen, J. Zhang, Cascading Failure Risk Assessment Considering Protection System Hidden Failures, Int J Mech Eng Appl, 4(2) (2016) 50-58.
[2] R. Graziano, V. Kruse, G. Rankin, Systems analysis of protection system coordination: A strategic problem for transmission and distribution reliability, IEEE transactions on power delivery, 7(2) (1992) 720-726.
[3] J. Zhang, M. Ding, X. Qi, Y. Guo, Research on hidden failure reliability modeling of electric power system protection, Energy and Power Engineering, 5(04) (2013) 1377.
[4] M.C. Bozchalui, M. Sanaye-Pasand, M. Fotuhi-Firuzabad, Composite system reliability evaluation incorporating protection system failures, in:  Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2005., IEEE, 2005, pp. 486-489.
[5] X. Yu, C. Singh, Power system reliability analysis considering protection failures, in:  IEEE Power Engineering Society Summer Meeting, IEEE, 2002, pp. 963-968.
[6] X. Yu, C. Singh, A practical approach for integrated power system vulnerability analysis with protection failures, IEEE Transactions on power systems, 19(4) (2004) 1811-1820.
[7] P. Anderson, G. Chintaluri, S. Magbuhat, R. Ghajar, An improved reliability model for redundant protective systems-Markov models, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 12(2) (1997) 573-578.
[8] E.S. Kiel, G.H. Kjølle, Reliability of Supply and the Impact of Weather Exposure and Protection System Failures, Applied Sciences, 11(1) (2020) 182.
[9] K. Jiang, C. Singh, New models and concepts for power system reliability evaluation including protection system failures, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 26(4) (2011) 1845-1855.
[10] M. Eliassi, H. Seifi, M.R. Haghifam, Incorporation of protection system failures into bulk power system reliability assessment by Bayesian networks, IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution, 9(11) (2015) 1226-1234.
[11] F. Yang, A.S. Meliopoulos, G.J. Cokkinides, Q.B. Dam, Bulk power system reliability assessment considering protection system hidden failures, in:  2007 iREP symposium-bulk power system dynamics and control-VII. Revitalizing operational reliability, IEEE, 2007, pp. 1-8.
[12] H.A. Abyaneh, M. Al-Dabbagh, H.K. Karegar, S.H.H. Sadeghi, R.J. Khan, A new optimal approach for coordination of overcurrent relays in interconnected power systems, IEEE Transactions on power delivery, 18(2) (2003) 430-435.
[13] M. Azari, K. Mazlumi, M. Ojaghi, Efficient non-standard tripping characteristic-based coordination method for overcurrent relays in meshed power networks, Electrical Engineering,  (2022) 1-18.
[14] T. Keil, J. Jager, Advanced coordination method for overcurrent protection relays using nonstandard tripping characteristics, IEEE transactions on power delivery, 23(1) (2007) 52-57.
[15] A.S. Noghabi, H.R. Mashhadi, J. Sadeh, Optimal coordination of directional overcurrent relays considering different network topologies using interval linear programming, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 25(3) (2010) 1348-1354.
[16] A.S. Noghabi, J. Sadeh, H.R. Mashhadi, Considering different network topologies in optimal overcurrent relay coordination using a hybrid GA, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 24(4) (2009) 1857-1863.
[17] F. Razavi, H.A. Abyaneh, M. Al-Dabbagh, R. Mohammadi, H. Torkaman, A new comprehensive genetic algorithm method for optimal overcurrent relays coordination, Electric Power Systems Research, 78(4) (2008) 713-720.
[18] M. Boaski, M. Sperandio, D. Bernardon, C. Barriquello, D. Porto, M. Ramos, Methodology for coordination and selectivity of protection devices with reliability assessment, in:  2017 52nd International Universities Power Engineering Conference (UPEC), IEEE, 2017, pp. 1-6.
[19] I.S. Hernanda, E.N. Kartinisari, D.A. Asfani, D. Fahmi, Analysis of protection failure effect and relay coordination on reliability index, in:  2014 The 1st International Conference on Information Technology, Computer, and Electrical Engineering, IEEE, 2014, pp. 366-371.
[20] M. Jazaeri, M. Farzinfar, F. Razavi, Evaluation of the impacts of relay coordination on power system reliability, International Transactions on Electrical Energy Systems, 25(12) (2015) 3408-3421.
[21] K. Mazlumi, H.A. Abyaneh, Relay coordination and protection failure effects on reliability indices in an interconnected sub-transmission system, Electric Power Systems Research, 79(7) (2009) 1011-1017.
[22] J.D. Barbosa, R.C. Santos, J.F. Romero, P.T. Asano, A.V. Neto, J.B. Camargo, J.R. Almeida, P.S. Cugnasca, A methodology for reliability assessment of substations using fault tree and Monte Carlo simulation, Electrical Engineering, 101 (2019) 57-66.
[23] R. Billinton, A. Sankarakrishnan, A comparison of Monte Carlo simulation techniques for composite power system reliability assessment, in:  IEEE WESCANEX 95. Communications, Power, and Computing. Conference Proceedings, IEEE, 1995, pp. 145-150.
[24] R. Billinton, W. Wangdee, Impact of utilising sequential and nonsequential simulation techniques in bulk-electric-system reliability assessment, IEE Proceedings-Generation, Transmission and Distribution, 152(5) (2005) 623-628.
[25] Y. Massim, A. Zeblah, M. Benguediab, A. Ghouraf, R. Meziane, Reliability evaluation of electrical power systems including multi-state considerations, Electrical Engineering, 88 (2006) 109-116.
[26] A. Sankarakrishnan, R. Billinton, Sequential Monte Carlo simulation for composite power system reliability analysis with time varying loads, IEEE Transactions on power Systems, 10(3) (1995) 1540-1545.
[27] H. Lei, C. Singh, Power system reliability evaluation considering cyber-malfunctions in substations, Electric Power Systems Research, 129 (2015) 160-169.