Improving Long PN-Code Acquisition in the Presence of Doppler Frequency Shifts

Document Type : Research Article


1 PhD. Student, Communications Engineering Faculty, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Communications Engineering Faculty, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.


Wireless communication is the major form of connection nowadays. In most cases it exploits the benefits of the spread spectrum techniques to overcome channel introduced corruptions like Doppler residual frequency, noise, interference and jamming. These techniques also enhance the security and quality of the link. Using long spreading pseudo-noise codes provides further security for the link though its acquisition is challenging. In this paper we propose Enhanced Dual Folding method for acquiring long codes in high Doppler scenarios. Two main criteria of an acquisition algorithm i.e. probability of detection and mean acquisition time is theoretically and numerically obtained for the proposed method. The proposed method's performance is simulated for two Doppler residual frequencies and is compared with a similar technique of long code acquisition which confirms the success of the proposed method in tolerating high Doppler in comparison with the similar technique. The simulation results agree well with the theoretical equations.


Main Subjects

[1] R. E. Ziemer, R. L. Peterson and D. E. Borth,Introduction to Spread Spectrum Communications,
Prentice Hall, 1995.
[2] V. P. Ipatov, Spread Spectrum and CDMA:Principles and Applications, John Wiley, 2005.
[3] E. D. Kaplan and C. J. Hegarty, Understanding GPS:Principles and Applications, London: Artech House,
[4] S. H. Kong and B. Kim, "Two-DimensionalCompressed Correlator for Fast PN CodeAcquisition," Wireless Communications, IEEETransactions on, vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 5859-5867,
[5]B. Kim and S. H. Kong, "Two-Dimensional Compressed Correlator for Fast Acquisition of Signals," Vehicular Technology, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 2662-2672, 2014.
[6]B. Kim and S. H. Kong, "Determination of detection parameters on TDCC performance," Wireless Communications, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 2422-2431, 2014.
[7]K. M. Chugg and M. Zhu, "A New Approach to Rapid PN Code Acquisition Using Iterative Message Passing Techniques," IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 23, pp. 884-898, 2005.
[8]O. W. Yeung and K. M. Chugg, "A Low Complexity Circuit Architecture for Rapid PN Code Acquisition in UWB Systems Using Iterative Message Passing on Redundant Graphical Models," University of Southern California, 2005.
[9]J. Zhang, Y. Pei and N. Ge, "PN Code Acquisition Using Belief Propagation with Adaptive Parity Check Matrix," Wireless personal communications, vol. 71, no. 4, pp. 3105-3113, 2013.
[10]L. Hong, X. C. Mingquan Lu and F. Zhenming, "Generalized Zero-Padding Scheme for Direct P-Code Acquisition," IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 2866-72, 2009.
[11]J. Ping, X. Wu, Y. Jun and W. Zhu, "Modified Zero-Padding Method for Fast Long PN-Code Acquisition," in Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Fall), 2014 IEEE 80th, 2014.
[12]L. Simone and G. Fittipaldi, "Fast acquisition techniques for very long PN codes for on-board secure TTC transponders," in MILITARY COMMUNICATIONS CONFERENCE, 2011-MILCOM 2011, 2011.
[13]J. A. Starzyk and Z. Zhu, "Averaging correlation for C/A code acquisition and tracking in frequency domain," Proc. IEEE Midwest Sym. on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS), vol. 2, pp. 905-908, 2001.
[14]J. Pang, F. Van Grass, J. Starzyk and Z. Zhu, "Fast Direct GPS P-Code Acquisition," GPS Solutions, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 168-175, 2003.
[15]L. Hong, L. Minguan and Z. Feng, "Mathematical Modelling and Performance Analysis for Average-Based Rapid Search Method for Direct Global Position System Precision Code Acquisition," IET Radar Sonar and Navigation, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 81-93, 2009.
[16]C. Yang, J. Vasquez and J. Chaffee, "Fast Direct P(Y)-code Acquisition Using XFAST," in Proceedings of the 12th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation (ION GPS 1999), Nashville, TN, 1999.
[17]L. Hong, C. Xiaowei, M. Lu and F. Zhenming, "Dual-Folding Based Rapid Search Method for Long PN-Code Acquisition," IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 7, no. 12, pp. 5286-5297, 2008.
[18]J. Baek, J. Park, Y. Lee, S. Y. Kim, G.-I. Jee, J.-M. Yang and S. Yoon, "Low Complexity Long PN Code Acquisition Scheme for Spread Spectrum Systems," in The Third International Conference on Emerging Network Intelligence, 2011.
[19]L. Hong, L. Mingquan and F. Zhenming, "Partial-Correlation-Result Reconstruction Technique for Weak Global Navigation Satellite System Long Pseudo-Noise-Code Acquisition," IET Radar, Sonar and Navigation, vol. 5, no. 7, pp. 731-740, 2011.
[20]L. Hong, L. Mingquan and F. Zhenming, "Three-Stage Based Rapid Long PN-code Acquisition Method by Employing Time-Frequency Folding Technique," Chinese Journal of Electronics, vol. 19, no. 4, 2010.
[21]H. Li, M. Lu and Z. Feng, "Mapping and overlapping based carrier frequency searching technique for rapid GNSS long PN-code acquisition," Science China Information Sciences, vol. 53, no. 12, pp. 2642-2652, 2010.
[22]F. Wenquan, X. Xiaodi, Z. Qi and Z. W, "Local Frequency Folding Method for Fast PN-Code Acquisition," IEICE Transactions on Communications, vol. 97, no. 5, pp. 1072-1079, 2014.
[23]M. Sahmoudi, M. G. Amin and R. Landry Jr, "Acquisition of weak GNSS signals using a new block averaging pre-processing," in Position, Location and Navigation Symposium, 2008 IEEE/ION, 2008.
[24]S. H. Kong, "SDHT for Fast Detection of Weak GNSS Signals," Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal on, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 2366-2378, 2015.
[25]P. J. G and D. K. Manolakis, Digital Signal Processing Principles, Algorithms and Applications, 4th ed., Prentice Hall, 2007.
[26]N. l. Ziedan, GNSS receivers for weak signals, Artech House, 2006.
[27]S. W. Golomb, Shift Register Sequences, San Fransico, CA: Holden Day, 1967.
[28]P. A. and G. L. Weber, "A unified approach to serial search spread-spectrum code acquisition-part I & II," IEEE Transaction Communications, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 542-560, 1984.