Studying the Role of Ion Migration on Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes by Steady-State Approach

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of Physics, Faculty of Basic Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

2 RF MEMS and Bio-Nano-Electronics Lab, Electrical Engineering Department, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran


Despite the rapid development of Perovskite-based Light-Emitting Diodes (PeLEDs) within the last decade, the role of ion migration on the operation of the devices has not been completely understood. Affecting PeLED's operation is considered as the most complicated and mysterious process. It is widely accepted that the ion migration, as an intrinsic phenomenon, is one of the main origins for low stability of PeLEDs. On the other hand, the defect passivation caused by mobile ions gives rise to enhanced charge injection from the electron and hole transporting layers, leading to more efficient light-emitting diodes. Therefore, it is critical to have a comprehensive insight to the underlying principles of ion migration and its contributing factors. In this paper, the ion migration phenomenon and its influence on the operation of a PeLED are surveyed using the Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation. The accumulation of anions and cations at the hole and electron transporting layer's interface with the perovskite facilitates hole and electron injection, which result in more carrier density favoring the radiative recombination. Therefore, ion migration is a phenomenon that is closely related to the operation and stability of the device by controlling which more stable PeLED is attainable. Our results provide a better understanding of the physics behind the ion migration, which is the first step to design more efficient devices.


Main Subjects

[1] Y. Guo, C. Liu, H. Tanaka, and E. Nakamura, "Air-stable and solution-processable perovskite photodetectors for solar-blind UV and visible light," The journal of physical chemistry letters, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 535-539, 2015.
[2] J. You et al., "Low-temperature solution-processed perovskite solar cells with high efficiency and flexibility," ACS nano, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 1674-1680, 2014.
[3] S. D. Stranks and H. J. Snaith, "Metal-halide perovskites for photovoltaic and light-emitting devices," Nature nanotechnology, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 391-402, 2015.
[4]          D. P. McMeekin et al., "A mixed-cation lead mixed-halide perovskite absorber for tandem solar cells," Science, vol. 351, no. 6269, pp. 151-155, 2016.
[5]          S. Pathak et al., "Perovskite crystals for tunable white light emission," Chemistry of Materials, vol. 27, no. 23, pp. 8066-8075, 2015.
[6] C. M. Sutter-Fella et al., "High photoluminescence quantum yield in band gap tunable bromide containing mixed halide perovskites," Nano letters, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 800-806, 2016.
[7]  A. Amat et al., "Cation-induced band-gap tuning in organohalide perovskites: interplay of spin–orbit coupling and octahedra tilting," Nano letters, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 3608-3616, 2014.
[8]  L. Zheng et al., "Improved light absorption and charge transport for perovskite solar cells with rough interfaces by sequential deposition," Nanoscale, vol. 6, no. 14, pp. 8171-8176, 2014.
[9] S. D. Stranks et al., "Electron-hole diffusion lengths exceeding 1 micrometer in an organometal trihalide perovskite absorber," Science, vol. 342, no. 6156, pp. 341-344, 2013.
[10] S. D. Stranks, V. M. Burlakov, T. Leijtens, J. M. Ball, A. Goriely, and H. J. Snaith, "Recombination kinetics in organic-inorganic perovskites: excitons, free charge, and subgap states," Physical Review Applied, vol. 2, no. 3, p. 034007, 2014.
[11] W.-J. Yin, T. Shi, and Y. Yan, "Unusual defect physics in CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cell absorber," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 104, no. 6, p. 063903, 2014.
[12] L. Bertoluzzi et al., "Mobile ion concentration measurement and open-access band diagram simulation platform for halide perovskite solar cells," Joule, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 109-127, 2020.
[13] Z.-K. Tan et al., "Bright light-emitting diodes based on organoMetal Halide Perovskite," Nature nanotechnology, vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 687-692, 2014.
[14] K. Lin et al., "Perovskite light-emitting diodes with External Quantum Efficiency exceeding 20 per cent," Nature, vol. 562, no. 7726, pp. 245-248, 2018.
[15]   B. Zhao et al., "High-efficiency perovskite–polymer bulk heterostructure light-emitting diodes," Nature Photonics, vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 783-789, 2018.
[16] Y. Cao et al., "Perovskite light-emitting diodes based on spontaneously formed submicrometre-scale structures," Nature, vol. 562, no. 7726, pp. 249-253, 2018.
[17] L. Meng, J. You, and Y. Yang, "Addressing the stability issue of perovskite solar cells for commercial applications," Nature communications, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1-4, 2018.
[18] Q. Dong, L. Lei, J. Mendes, and F. So, "Operational stability of perovskite light emitting diodes," Journal of Physics: Materials, vol. 3, no. 1, p. 012002, 2020.
[19] J. W. Lee, D. H. Kim, H. S. Kim, S. W. Seo, S. M. Cho, and N. G. Park, "Formamidinium and cesium hybridization for photo‐and moisture‐stable perovskite solar cell," Advanced Energy Materials, vol. 5, no. 20, p. 1501310, 2015.
[20]  N. Arora et al., "Intrinsic and extrinsic stability of formamidinium lead bromide perovskite solar cells yielding high photovoltage," Nano letters, vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 7155-7162, 2016.
[21] Q. Dong et al., "Encapsulation of perovskite solar cells for high humidity conditions," ChemSusChem, vol. 9, no. 18, pp. 2597-2603, 2016.
[22]  K. Miyata, T. L. Atallah, and X.-Y. Zhu, "Lead halide perovskites: Crystal-liquid duality, phonon glass electron crystals, and large polaron formation," Science Advances, vol. 3, no. 10, p. e1701469, 2017.
[23] C. Katan, A. D. Mohite, and J. Even, "Entropy in halide perovskites," Nature materials, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 377-379, 2018.
[24]  T. Y. Yang, G. Gregori, N. Pellet, M. Grätzel, and J. Maier, "The significance of ion conduction in a hybrid organic–inorganic lead‐iodide‐based perovskite photosensitizer," Angewandte Chemie, vol. 127, no. 27, pp. 8016-8021, 2015.
[25]  A. Poglitsch and D. Weber, "Dynamic disorder in methylammoniumtrihalogenoplumbates (II) observed by millimeter‐wave spectroscopy," The Journal of chemical physics, vol. 87, no. 11, pp. 6373-6378, 1987.
[26] H. Cho, Y. H. Kim, C. Wolf, H. D. Lee, and T. W. Lee, "Improving the stability of Metal Halide Perovskite materials and light‐emitting diodes," Advanced Materials, vol. 30, no. 42, p. 1704587, 2018.
[27] J. Mizusaki, K. Arai, and K. Fueki, "Ionic conduction of the perovskite-type halides," Solid State Ionics, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 203-211, 1983.
[28] M. Cherry, M. S. Islam, and C. Catlow, "Oxygen ion migration in perovskite-type oxides," Journal of Solid State Chemistry, vol. 118, no. 1, pp. 125-132, 1995.
[29]  M. Khan, M. Islam, and D. Bates, "Dopant substitution and ion migration in the LaGaO3-based oxygen ion conductor," The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 102, no. 17, pp. 3099-3104, 1998.
[30] Y. Yuan et al., "Electric‐field‐driven reversible conversion between Methylammonium lead triiodide perovskites and lead iodide at elevated temperatures," Advanced Energy Materials, vol. 6, no. 2, p. 1501803, 2016.
[31] T. Zhang, C. Hu, and S. Yang, "Ion Migration: A “Double‐Edged Sword” for Halide‐Perovskite‐Based Electronic Devices," Small Methods, vol. 4, no. 5, p. 1900552, 2020.
[32] C. Eames, J. M. Frost, P. R. Barnes, B. C. O’regan, A. Walsh, and M. S. Islam, "Ionic transport in hybrid lead iodide perovskite solar cells," Nature communications, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1-8, 2015.
[33] J. M. Azpiroz, E. Mosconi, J. Bisquert, and F. De Angelis, "Defect migration in methylammonium lead iodide and its role in perovskite solar cell operation," Energy & Environmental Science, vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 2118-2127, 2015.
[34]  R. Singh and M. Parashar, "Origin of Hysteresis in Perovskite Solar Cells," 2020.
[35]   Z. Xiao et al., "Giant switchable photovoltaic effect in organometal trihalide perovskite devices," Nature materials, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 193-198, 2015.
[36]  E. T. Hoke, D. J. Slotcavage, E. R. Dohner, A. R. Bowring, H. I. Karunadasa, and M. D. McGehee, "Reversible photo-induced trap formation in mixed-halide hybrid perovskites for photovoltaics," Chemical Science, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 613-617, 2015.
[37]  H. Wang et al., "Dynamic Redistribution of Mobile Ions in Perovskite Light‐Emitting Diodes," Advanced Functional Materials, vol. 31, no. 8, p. 2007596, 2021.
[38] R. Quintero-Bermudez, J. Kirman, D. Ma, E. H. Sargent, and R. Quintero-Torres, "Mechanisms of LiF Interlayer Enhancements of Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes," The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 4213-4220, 2020.
[39]  Q. Dong et al., "Understanding the role of ion migration in the operation of perovskite light-emitting diodes by transient measurements," ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, vol. 12, no. 43, pp. 48845-48853, 2020.