Modeling, Small-Signal Stability Analyzing and Implementing of an Inverter-based Distributed Generation with Feed-forwarded Model Predictive Controller

Document Type : Research Article


Electrical, Engineering, Malayer University, Hamedan, Iran


Nowadays the control and stability of DG systems are important topics that researchers in both academia and industry. Small and large signal analyses for stability studies on various systems have been done in papers and books. In this paper, first models of an inverter-based Distributed Generation (DG) subsystems are created. After the linearization, if required, the small-signal stability analysis of the DG which is controlled with a voltage and frequency control scheme based on the model predictive control (MPC) that has been used previously, is established. In this control scheme, load currents at the point of common coupling (PCC) of the DG are considered as disturbances and used as feed-forward signals. This technique enhances the performance of the DG control system in transient and steady-state conditions for a wide range of loads. The stability of the DG system under various loads (such as one phase load as imbalanced load, rectifier load as nonlinear load and induction motor load as dynamic load) is demonstrated by the eigenvalues trajectory. The sensitivity analysis and robustness assessment of the control scheme are also conducted and discussed. For more performance consideration, the DG system is simulated with MATLAB/SIMULINK software, implemented in the lab and later the suitable performance of the system is demonstrated by the simulation and experimental studies.


Main Subjects

[1] Chowdhury, S., et al. (2009). Microgrids and Active Distribution Networks. IET Press.
[2] Yazdani, A. and Dash, P. P. (2009). "A Control Methodology and Characterization of Dynamics for a Photovoltaic (PV) System Interfaced with a Distribution Network. " IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery 24(3): 1538–1551.
[3] Delghavi, M. B. and Yazdani, A. (2009). "A control strategy for islanded operation of a distributed resource (DR) unit. " IEEE Power Eng. Soc. Gen. Meeting: 1–8.
[4] Saleh, A., et al. (2019). "Model Predictive Control of Distributed Generations with Feed-forward Output Currents, " IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid 10(2): 1488–1500.
[5] Jin, T., et al. (2019). "Model Predictive Voltage Control Based on Finite Control Set With Computation Time Delay Compensation for PV Systems. " IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion 34(1): 330–338.
[6] Hamzeh, M., et al. (2015). "Robust Control of an Islanded Microgrid under Unbalanced and Nonlinear Load Conditions. " IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics.
[7] Lascu, C. (2020). "Sliding Mode Direct Voltage Control of Voltage Source Converters with LC Filters for Pulsed Power Loads. " IEEE Transactions On Industrial Electronics.
[8] Delghavi, M. B., et al. (2016). " Fractional-Order Sliding-Mode Control of Islanded Distributed Energy Resource Systems. " IEEE Trans. Sustainable Energy.     
[9] Kabalan, M., et al. (2016). "Large Signal Lyapunov-Based Stability Studies in Microgrids: A Review. " IEEE Trans. Smart Grid.     
[10] Yang, C., et al. (2020). "Placing Grid-Forming Converters to Enhance Small Signal Stability of PLL-Integrated Power Systems. " IEEE Transaction on Power System.
[11] Bottrell, N., et al. (2013). "Dynamic stability of amicrogrid with an active load. " IEEE Transaction on Power Electronics 28(11): 5107–5119.
[12] Kahrobaeian, A. and Mohamed, Y. A.-R. I. (2014). "Analysis and mitigation of low-frequency instabilities in autonomous medium-voltage converter based microgrids with dynamic loads. " IEEE Transaction on Industrial Electronic 61(4): 1643–1658.
[13] Zheng, H., et al. (2020). "Large-Signal Stability Analysis for VSC-HVDC Systems Based on Mixed Potential Theory. " IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery 3(4): 1939 – 1948.
[14] Xie, W., et al. (2021). "System-Level Large-Signal Stability Analysis of Droop-Controlled DC Microgrids. " IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics 36(4): 4224-436.
[15] Krause, P. C., et al. (2002). Analysis of Electric Machinery and Drive Systems, IEEE Press.
[16] Katiraei, F., et al. (2005). "Micro-grid autonomous operation during and subsequent to islanding process. " IEEE Transaction on Power Delivery 20(1): 248–257.
[17] Peng, Y., et al. (2019). "Modeling and Stability Analysis of Inverter-based Microgrid under Harmonic Conditions. " IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid.
[18] Shuai, Z., et al. (2019). "Transient Response Analysis of Inverter-Based Microgrids Under Unbalanced Conditions Using a Dynamic Phasor Model." IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 66(4): 2868-2879.
[19] Aderibole, A., et al. (2018). "A Critical Assessment of Oscillatory Modes in Multi-Microgrids Comprising of Synchronous and Inverter Based Distributed Generation. " IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid.
[20] Nandanoori, S. P., et al. (2020). "Distributed Small-Signal Stability Conditions for Inverter-Based Unbalanced Microgrids. " IEEE Transactions On Power Systems 35(5).
[21] Delghavi, M. B.  and Yazdani, A. (2012). "A Unified Control Strategy for Electronically Interfaced Distributed Energy Resources. " IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery 27(2): 803-812.
[22] Saleh, A. and Deihimi, A. (2018). "Model Predictive Control of Distributed Energy Resources with Predictive Set-Points for Grid-Connected Operation. " AUT Journal of Electrical Engineering 50(2): 3-14.
[23] Wang, L. (2009). Model Predictive Control System Design and Implementation Using MATLAB, London.
[24] Zheng, C., et al. (2020). "Current-Sensorless Finite-Set Model Predictive Control for LC-Filtered Voltage Source Inverters. " IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics 35(1): 1086-1095.
[25] Zeng, Z., et al. (2011). "Study on small signal stability of microgrids: A review and a new approach. " Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15: 4818–4828.
[26] Mahdavi, M. S., et al. (2019). "Frequency Regulation of AUT Microgrid Using Modified Fuzzy PI Controller for Flywheel Energy Storage System. " AUT Journal of Electrical Engineering 51(1): 31-38.
[27] Rahmani, R. and Fakharian, A. (2018). "A Distributed Control Architecture for Autonomous Operation of a Hybrid AC/DC Microgrid System. " AUT Journal of Electrical Engineering 50(1): 25-32.
[28] Rokrok, E., et al. (2020). "A Robust Control Strategy for Distributed Generations in Islanded Microgrids." AUT Journal of Electrical Engineering, 52(1): 107-120.