2013
45
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Interval Analysis of Controllable Workspace for Cable Robots
Interval Analysis of Controllable Workspace for Cable Robots
2
2
Workspace analysis is one of the most important issues in the robotic parallel manipulator design. However, the unidirectional constraint imposed by cables causes this analysis more challenging in the cabledriven redundant parallel manipulators. Controllable workspace is one of the general workspace in the cabledriven redundant parallel manipulators due to the dependency on geometry parameters in the cable drivenredundant parallel manipulators. In this paper, a novel tool is presented based on interval analysis fordetermination of the boundaries and proper assessment of the enclosed region of controllable workspace ofcable-driven redundant parallel manipulators. This algorithm utilizes the fundamental wrench interpretationto analyze the controllable workspace of cable driven redundant parallel manipulators. Fundamental wrenchis the newly definitions that opens new horizons for physical interpretation of controllable workspace ofgeneral cable driven redundant parallel manipulators. Finally, the proposed method is implemented on aspatial cable driven redundant manipulator of interest.
1
Workspace analysis is one of the most important issues in the robotic parallel manipulator design. However, the unidirectional constraint imposed by cables causes this analysis more challenging in the cabledriven redundant parallel manipulators. Controllable workspace is one of the general workspace in the cabledriven redundant parallel manipulators due to the dependency on geometry parameters in the cable drivenredundant parallel manipulators. In this paper, a novel tool is presented based on interval analysis fordetermination of the boundaries and proper assessment of the enclosed region of controllable workspace ofcable-driven redundant parallel manipulators. This algorithm utilizes the fundamental wrench interpretationto analyze the controllable workspace of cable driven redundant parallel manipulators. Fundamental wrenchis the newly definitions that opens new horizons for physical interpretation of controllable workspace ofgeneral cable driven redundant parallel manipulators. Finally, the proposed method is implemented on aspatial cable driven redundant manipulator of interest.
1
8
.A
Zarif Loloei
A.
Zarif Loloei
Assistant Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, Pardis Branch, Islamic Azad University, Pardis, Tehran, Iran
Assistant Professor, Department of Electrical
Iran
H. D.
H. D. Taghirad
H. D.
Taghirad
Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering,
Iran
N.
Kouchmeshky
N.
N. Kouchmeshky
M.Sc. Student, Department of Computer Engineering, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran
M.Sc. Student, Department of Computer Engineering,
Iran
Controllable Workspace
Interval Analysis
Cable Driven Redundant Parallel Manipulator
Fundamental Wrench
Boundary of Workspace
Unidirectional Constraint
[Y. X. Su, B. Y. Duan, R. D. Nan, B. Peng, “Development of a large parallel-cable manipulator for the feed-supporting system of a next-generation large radio telescope”, Journal of Robotic Systems, vol.18, No. 11, pp. 633– 643, 2001.##M. Rajh, S. Glodez, J. Flasker, K. Gotlih, et al., “Design and analysis of an fMRI compatible haptic robot”, Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, vol.27, No. 2, pp. 267– 275, 2011.##R. L. Williams, J. S. Albus, R. V. Bostelman, “3D cable-based cartesian metrology system”, Journal of Robotic Systems, vol.21, No. 5, pp. 237– 257, 2004.##G. Rosati, P. Gallina, S. Masiero, Design, “implementation and clinical tests of a wire-based robot for neuron rehabilitation”, IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, vol. 15, No. 4, pp. 560– 569, 2007.##A. Alikhani, S. Behzadipour, A. Alasty, S. A. Sadough Vanini, “Design of a large-scale cable-driven robot with translational motion”, Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 357– 366, 2011.##R. G. Roberts, T. Graham, T. Lippitt, “On the inverse kinematics, statics, and fault tolerance of cable-suspended robots”, Journal of Robotic Systems, vol. 15, No. 10, pp. 581– 597, 1998.##P. Bosscher, A. Riechel, I. Ebert-Uphoff, “Wrench-Feasible Workspace Generation for Cable-Driven Robots”, IEEE Transaction on Robotics, vol. 22, No. 5, pp. 890- 902, 2006.##G. Barrette, and C.M. Gosselin, “Determination of the dynamic workspace of cable-driven planar parallel mechanisms”, Journal ASME Journal of Mechanical Design, vol. 127, No. 2, pp. 242- 248, 2005.##A. Fattah, and S. Agrawal, “On the design of cable-suspended planar parallel robots”, ASME Journal of Mechanical Design, vol. 127, No. 5, pp. 1021- 1028, 2005.##R. Verhoeven, M. Hiller, “Estimating the controllable workspace of tendon-based stewart platforms”, Advances in Robot Kinematics, pp. 277– 284, 2000.##M. Gouttefarde, and C.M. Gosselin, “Analysis of the wrench-closure workspace of planar parallel cable-driven mechanisms”, IEEE Transactions on Robotics, vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 434- 445, 2006.##C.B. Pham, S.H. Yeo, G. Yang, M.S. Kurbanhusen, I-M. Chen, “Force-closure workspace analysis of cable-driven parallel mechanisms”, Mechanism and Machine Theory, vol. 41, No.1, pp. 53- 69, 2006.##X. Diao and O. Ma, “force-closure analysis of general 6-DOF cable manipulators with seven or more Cables”, Robotica, vol. 27, No. 2, pp.209- 215, 2009.##C. Ferraresi,M. Paoloni, and F. Pescarmona, “A new methodology for the Determination of the workspace of six-DOF redundant parallel structures actuated by nine wires”, Robotica, vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 113– 120, 2007##A. Zarif Loloei, H. D. Taghirad, “Controllable workspace of cable driven redundant parallel manipulator by fundamental wrench analysis”, Transactions of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering, vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 297- 314, 2012.##M. Gouttefarde, D. Daney, and J.P. Merlet, “Interval-Analysis-Based Determination of the Wrench-Feasible Workspace of Parallel Cable-Driven Robots”, IEEE Transactions on Robotics, vol. 27, No.1, pp. 1- 13, 2011.##S. A. Khalilpour, A. Zarif Loloei, H. D. Taghirad, and M. Tale Masouleh. “Feasible kinematic sensitivity in cable robots based on Interval analysis”, T. Bruckmann and A. Pott (eds.), Cable-Driven Parallel Robots, Mechanisms and Machine Science, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 233- 249, 2013.##R.G. Roberts, T. Graham, T. Lippitt, “On the Inverse Kinematics, Statics, and Fault Tolerance of Cable-Suspended Robots”, Journal of Robotic Systems, vol. 15, No.10, pp. 581- 597, 1998.##S. Fang, D. Franitza, M. Torlo, F. Bekes, and M. Hiller, “Motion control of a tendon- based parallel manipulator using optimal tension distribution”, IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 561- 568, 2004.##A.Z. Loloei, and H.D. Taghirad, , “Controllable Workspace of General Cable Driven Redundant Parallel Manipulator Based on Fundamental wrench”, CCToMM Symposium on Mechanisms, Machines, and Mechatronics, Montreal, Canada, July, 2011.##L. Jaulin, M. Kieffer, O. Didrit, and E. Walter, Applied Interval Analysis. New York: Springer-Verlag, 2001.##R. E. Moore, R. B. Kearfott, M. J. Cloud, Introduction to interval analysis, Society for Industrial Mathematics, 2009.##L. Jaulin, Applied interval analysis: with examples in parameter and state estimation, robust control and robotics, vol. 1, Springer Verlag, 2001.##B.M. St.-Onge, and C.M. Gosselin, , “Singularity analysis and representation of the general Gough-Stewart platform”, International Journal of Roboic. Research, vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 271– 288, 2000.##M.M. Aref, , H.D. Taghirad, and S.Barissi, “Optimal Design of Dexterous Cable Driven Parallel Manipulators”, International Journal of Robotics, vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 29- 47, 2009.##]
Power Quality Improvement in Traction Power Supply Networks
Power Quality Improvement in Traction Power Supply Networks
2
2
AC railway traction loads are usually huge single phase loads. As a result, a significant amount of Negative Sequence Current (NSC) is injected into utility grid. Moreover, harmonics and consumption ofreactive power are further power quality problems that the supply network is encountering. In this paper, acompensation strategy with the aid of Railway Power Conditioner (RPC) is proposed to overcome the abovementionedproblems. Firstly, different kinds of traction transformers are evaluated and Y/Δ tractiontransformer is chosen. Then, a compensation strategy is initiated that is valid for all kinds of tractiontransformers and a control system is proposed based on that. Finally, the correctness of the analysis andproposed strategy is verified by the simulation results using Matlab/Simulink software.
1
AC railway traction loads are usually huge single phase loads. As a result, a significant amount of Negative Sequence Current (NSC) is injected into utility grid. Moreover, harmonics and consumption ofreactive power are further power quality problems that the supply network is encountering. In this paper, acompensation strategy with the aid of Railway Power Conditioner (RPC) is proposed to overcome the abovementionedproblems. Firstly, different kinds of traction transformers are evaluated and Y/Δ tractiontransformer is chosen. Then, a compensation strategy is initiated that is valid for all kinds of tractiontransformers and a control system is proposed based on that. Finally, the correctness of the analysis andproposed strategy is verified by the simulation results using Matlab/Simulink software.
9
15
A.
Ghassemi
A.
Ghassemi
MSc School of Railway Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology,Tehran, Iran
MSc School of Railway Engineering, Iran University
Iran
E.
zarezadeh
E.
zarezadeh
MSc School of Railway Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran
MSc School of Railway Engineering, Iran University
Iran
S.
Saeed Fazel
S.
Saeed Fazel
BSc student of Railway Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran
BSc student of Railway Engineering, Iran
Iran
Power Quality
Negative Sequence Current (NSC)
Electrified Railway
Railway Power Conditioner(RPC)
Traction Transformer
[P. Marian, N. B. Ioana and G. Sirbu, “Solution for the Power Quality Improvement in a Transportation System”, in 14th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference, EPE-PEMC, pp. 32- 37, 2010.##R. E. Morrison, “Power quality issues on ac traction systems”, in 9th International Conf. Harmonics and Quality of Power, pp. 709- 714, 2000.##H. E. Mazin and W. Xu, “Harmonic cancelation Charactristics of Specially Connected Transformers”, Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 79, No. 12, pp. 1689- 1697, 2009.##H. Lee, C. Lee, G. Jang, and S. Kwon, “Harmonic analysis of the korean high-speed railway using the eight-port representation model”, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 979– 986, Apr, 2006.##P. C. Tan, P. C. Loh, and D. G. Holmes, “Optimal impedance termination of 25-kv electrified railway systems for improved power quality”, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 1703– 1710, Apr, 2005.##C. P. Huango, C. J. Wu, Y. S. Chuang, S. K. Peng and M. H. Han, “Loading Characteristic Analysis of Specially Connected transformers Using Various Power Factor Definitions”, IEE Trasaction on Power Delivery, vol.21, No. 3, pp. 1406- 1413, July, 2006.##J. Chen, W. Lee, and M. Chen, “Using a static var compensator to balance a distribution system”, IEEE Trans. on Ind. Appl., vol. l35, No. 2, pp. 298– 304, Mar./Apr, 1999.##R. E. Morrison, D. G. Holmes, P.C. Tan, “voltage form factor control and reactive power compensation in a 25 kV electrified railway system using a shunt active filter based on voltage detection”, in power electronics and drives systems conference, pp. 605- 610, 2001.##D. Grahame Holmes P. chin tan, “A robust Multilevel Hybrid Compensation System for 25 kV Electrified Railway Application”, IEEE Transactions On Power Electronics, vol. 19, No. 4, pp. 1043- 1052, July, 2004.##Y. Mochinaga, M. Takeda, and K. Hasuike, “Static power conditioner using GTO converters for ac electric railway”, in Proc. Power Convers. Conf., Yokohama, Japan, pp. 641– 646, Apr, 2002.##H. Morimoto, M. Ando, Y. Mochinaga, and T. Kato, “Development of railway static power conditioner used at substation for shinkansen”, in Proc. Power Convers. Conf., Osaka, Japan, pp. 1108– 1111, Apr, 2002.##A. Luo, W. Chuanping, J. Shen, Z. Shuai, M. Fujun, “Railway Static Power Conditioners for High-speed Train Traction Power Supply Systems Using Three-phase V/V Transformers”, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 26, No.10, pp. 2844– 2856, Oct, 2011.##M. Fujun, A. Lou, X. xiayong, W. Jingbing, W. Chuanping, Z. Canlin, Z. Yin, “The Compensation and Control Analysis of Railway Static Power Regulator”, 10th Electrical and Control Engineering (ICECE), pp. 4391- 4394, 2010.##S. T. Senini and P. J.Wolfs, “Novel topology for correction of unbalanced load in single phase electric traction systems”, in Proc. IEEE 33th Annu. Power Electron. Spec. Conf., pp. 1208– 1212, Jun, 2002.##M. Kalantari, M. J. Sadeghi, S.Farshad, S.S. Fazel, “ Modeling and Comparison of Traction Transformes Based on the Utilization Factor Definitions”, International Review on Modeling and Simulations (I.RE.MO.S.), vol. 4, No.1, pp 342- 351, Feb, 2011.##H. Q. Wang, Y. J. Tian and Q. C. Gui, “Evaluation of negative-sequence current injecting into the public grid from different traction substation in electrical railways”, in Proc. 20th Int. Conf. Exhib. Elect. Distrib., Prague, Czech Republic, pp. 1– 4, Jun, 2009.##K. Alhaddad, A.chandra Bhim singh, “A review of active filters for power quality improvement”, Industrial Electron, vol. 4, No. 5, pp. 960- 969, May, 1999.##P. A. Dahono, “New hysteresis current controller for single-phase full-bridge inverters”, Power Electronics, IET, vol. 2, No. 5, pp. 585- 594, 2009.##M. K. Mishra, K. Karthikeyan, “A Fast-Acting DC-Link Voltage Controller for Three-Phase DSTATCOM to Compensate AC and DC Loads”, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 24, No.4, pp. 2291– 2299, Oct, 2009.##]
Shielding Effectiveness of a Lossy Metallic Enclosure
Shielding Effectiveness of a Lossy Metallic Enclosure
2
2
In this paper, shielding effectiveness (SE) of a perforated enclosure with imperfectly conducting walls is evaluated. To this end, first, an accurate numerical technique based on method of Moments (MoM) ispresented. In this method, lossy metallic walls of the enclosure are replaced by equivalent electric surfacecurrent sources. Then, the impedance boundary condition on the imperfectly conducting surfaces is appliedand an electric field integral equation is extracted. At the end, the integral equation is solved numerically byGalerkin method. In addition to the mentioned numerical method, an extremely fast analytical techniquebased on transmission line model(TLM) is proposed which is able to predict the SE with high level ofaccuracy over a large frequency bandwidth just in a few seconds. For validation of both methods, othercommercial softwares (FEKO and CST) are employed and several enclosures with different conductivitiesare studied. Lossy MoM method shows accurate results for conductivities down to 10S/m, while efficientTLM method proves its accuracy for conductivities down to 250S/m.
1
In this paper, shielding effectiveness (SE) of a perforated enclosure with imperfectly conducting walls is evaluated. To this end, first, an accurate numerical technique based on method of Moments (MoM) ispresented. In this method, lossy metallic walls of the enclosure are replaced by equivalent electric surfacecurrent sources. Then, the impedance boundary condition on the imperfectly conducting surfaces is appliedand an electric field integral equation is extracted. At the end, the integral equation is solved numerically byGalerkin method. In addition to the mentioned numerical method, an extremely fast analytical techniquebased on transmission line model(TLM) is proposed which is able to predict the SE with high level ofaccuracy over a large frequency bandwidth just in a few seconds. For validation of both methods, othercommercial softwares (FEKO and CST) are employed and several enclosures with different conductivitiesare studied. Lossy MoM method shows accurate results for conductivities down to 10S/m, while efficientTLM method proves its accuracy for conductivities down to 250S/m.
17
26
M.
Pedram
M.
Pedram
MSc Student, Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
MSc Student, Department of Electrical Engineering,
Iran
P.
Dehkhoda
P.
Dehkhoda
Assistant Professor, Institute of Communications Technology and Applied Electromagnetics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Assistant Professor, Institute of Communications
Iran
H.
Sadeghi
H.
Sadeghi
Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering,
Iran
R.
Moini
R.
Moini
Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering,
Iran
Finite Conductivity
Lossy Metallic Box
Shielding Effectiveness
Shielding Enclosure
Transmission Line Method
[F.T. Belkacem, M. Bensetti, and A. Boutar, “Combined model for shielding effectiveness estimation of a metallic enclosure with apertures”, IET ,Science, Measurement & Technology, vol.5, no.3, pp. 88- 95, May, 2011.##P. Dehkhoda, A. Tavakoli, and R. Moini, “Fast Calculation of the shielding effectiveness for a Rectangular enclosure of finite wall thickness and with numerous small apertures”, Progress In Electromagnetics Research, PIER 86, pp. 341- 355, 2008.##M. A. Khorrami, P. Dehkhoda, R. Moini, and S. H. H. Sadeghi, “Fast shielding effectiveness Calculation of metallic enclosures with apertures using a multi-resolution method of moments technique”, IEEE Trans. Electromagnetic Compatibility, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 230- 235, February, 2010.##J. Z. Lei, C. H. Liang and Y. Zhang, “Study on shielding effectiveness of metallic cavities with apertures by combining parallel FDTD method with windowing technique”, Progress In Electromagnetics Research, PIER 74, pp. 85- 112, 2007.##M. Luo, and K. Huang, “Prediction of the electromagnetic field in metallic enclosures using artificial neural networks”, Progress In Electromagnetics Research, PIER 116, pp. 171- 184, 2011.##L. Sevgi, “Electromagnetic screening and shielding-effectiveness (SE) modeling”, IEEE Trans. Ant. Prop., vol. 51, pp. 211- 216, February, 2009.##Y. J. Wang, W. J. Koh and C. K. Lee, “Electromagnetic coupling analysis of transient signal through slots or apertures perforated in shielding metallic enclosure using FDTD methodology”, Progress In Electromagnetics Research, PIER 36, pp. 247- 264, 2002.##N. Bao-Lin, D. Ping-an and Y. Ya-Ting, “Study of the shielding properties of enclosures with apertures at higher frequencies using the transmission-line modeling method”, IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat., vol.53, no.1, pp. 73- 81, February, 2011.##M. P. Robinson, J. D. Turner and D.W.P. Thomas, “Shielding effectiveness of a rectangular enclosure with a rectangular aperture”, Electronic letters, 15th, vol. 32, no. 17, pp. 1559- 1560, 1996.##M. P. Robinson, T. M. Benson and C. Christopoulos, “analytical Formulation for the shielding effectiveness of enclosures with##apertures”, IEEE Trans. Electromag. Compat., vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 240- 248, August, 1998.##K. H. Yeap, C. Y. Tham and K. C. Yeong, “Propagation near cutoff Frequency in a lossy rectangular waveguide”, International Journal of Electronics, Computer, and Communications Technologies, no. 1, pp. 26- 30, 2010.##D. A. Hill, M. T. Ma and A. R. Ondrejka, “Aperture excitation of electrically large, lossy cavities”, IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat., vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 169- 178, 1994.##R. E. Collin, Field Theory of Guided Waves, New York, IEEE Press, Inc, 1991.##CH. Fuchs, G. Kopp and S. J. Schwab, “An efficient algorithm for computing the transmission through highly conducting thin shield in TLM”, International Journal of Numerical Modeling, Electronic network, device and Fields, vol. 8, pp. 331- 340, 1995.##R. P. Jedlicka, Electromagnetic coupling into complex cavities through narrow apertures having depth and losses, Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ. New Mexico, 1995.##F. Obellelro, M. G. Araujo and J. L. Rodriguez, “Iterative physical optics formulation for analyzing large waveguides with lossy walls”, Micro. Opt. Tech. Lett., vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 21- 26, 2001.##R. F. Harrington, Time-Harmonic Electromagnetic Fields, New York, McGraw-Hill, 1961.##C. A. Balanis, Advance Engeneering Electromagnetics, New York:Wiley, 1989.##Rao, M.,D. R. Wilton and A. W. Glisson, “Electromagnetic scattering by surfaces of arbitrary shape”, IEEE Trans Ant. and Prop., vol. 30, pp. 409- 418, May 1982.##D. R. Wilton, S. M. Rao and A. W. Glisson, “Potential integrals for uniform and linear source distribution on polygonal and polyhedral domains”, IEEE Trans. Ant. and Prop., vol. 32, pp. 276- 281, May, 1984.##Y. Kamen, and L. Shirman, “Triangle rendering using adaptive subdivision”, IEEE Computer and Applications, pp. 95- 103, March, 1998.##K. C. Gupta, R. Garg, and I. J. Bahl, Microstrip Lines and Slotlines, Norwood, MA: Artech House, 1979##]
A Novel Flux-Based Protection Scheme for Power Transformers
A Novel Flux-Based Protection Scheme for Power Transformers
2
2
Internal Turn-Turn faults (TTF) are the most common failures in power transformers, which could seriously reduce their life expectancy. Although common protection schemes such as current-baseddifferential protection are able to detect some of the internal faults, some other minor ones (such as TTFs andshort circuit near the neutral point) cannot be detected by such schemes. Likewise, these relays may havefalse trip due to energizing inrush currents, transformer over excitation, and occurrence of CT saturation atone side. In this paper, a novel Linkage Flux Based (LFB) scheme is proposed to detect TTF in powertransformers, which uses some Search Coils (SC) located on the transformer legs to sense the related linkageflux. Any difference in induced voltage in the corresponding SCs (located on any leg) suggests passingunsymmetrical linkage fluxes through them (unlike the normal conditions), which stands for the occurrenceof a fault inside the transformer. The proposed technique not only can be used to protect power transformers,but also can be employed to find the fault location during repair activities, as well.
1
Internal Turn-Turn faults (TTF) are the most common failures in power transformers, which could seriously reduce their life expectancy. Although common protection schemes such as current-baseddifferential protection are able to detect some of the internal faults, some other minor ones (such as TTFs andshort circuit near the neutral point) cannot be detected by such schemes. Likewise, these relays may havefalse trip due to energizing inrush currents, transformer over excitation, and occurrence of CT saturation atone side. In this paper, a novel Linkage Flux Based (LFB) scheme is proposed to detect TTF in powertransformers, which uses some Search Coils (SC) located on the transformer legs to sense the related linkageflux. Any difference in induced voltage in the corresponding SCs (located on any leg) suggests passingunsymmetrical linkage fluxes through them (unlike the normal conditions), which stands for the occurrenceof a fault inside the transformer. The proposed technique not only can be used to protect power transformers,but also can be employed to find the fault location during repair activities, as well.
27
33
F.
Haghjoo
F.
Haghjoo
Assistant Professor, Department of Electrical Eng, Abbaspour School of Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
Assistant Professor, Department of Electrical
Iran
M.
Mostafaei
M.
Mostafaei
M.Sc. Student, Department of Electrical Eng, Abbaspour School of Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
M.Sc. Student, Department of Electrical Eng,
Iran
M.
Mohammadzadeh
M.
Mohammadzadeh
B.Sc. Student, Department of Electrical Eng, Abbaspour School of Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
B.Sc. Student, Department of Electrical Eng,
Iran
Power Transformer
Internal Fault
Search Coil
Linkage Flux
Finite Element Method (FEM)
[Wu, Q. H., Lu, Z. and Ji, T.Y., “Protective relaying for power systems using mathematical morphology”, Springer, 2009.##H. Wang and K. L. Butler, “Modeling Transformer with Internal Winding Faults by Calculating Leakage Factors”, Proceeding of the 31th North American Power Symposium, San Luis Obispo, CA, USA, 1999.##González, D., Guzmán, J., Fernández, G.A. and Arboleya, P.A., “Diagnosis of a Turn-to-Turn Short Circuit in Power Transformers by Means of Zero Sequence Current Analysis”, Electric Power Systems Research 69, No. 2, pp. 321- 329, 2004.##Guzmán, A., Zocholl, S., Benmouyal, G. and et al., “A Current-based Solution for Transformer Differential Protection. Part I: Problem Statement”, IEEE Transactons on Power Delivery, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 485– 491, 2001.##Areva, T.D. “Network Protection & Automation Guide”, Flash Espace, Cayfosa, pp. 92- 95, 2002.##Babiy, M., Gokaraju, R., and Garcia, J.C., “Turn-to-Turn Fault Detection in Transformers Using Negative Sequence Currents”, IEEE Electrical Power and Energy Conference, 2011.##[7] Gajić, Z., Brnčić, I, Hillström, B. and Ivanković, I., “Sensitive Turn-to-Turn Fault Protection for Power Transformers”, CIGRÉ Study Committee B5 Colloquium, 2005.##Cabanas, M.F., Melero, M.G., Pedrayes, F., Rojas, C.H., and Orcajo, G.A., “A New Online Method Based on Leakage Flux Analysis for the Early Detection and Location of Insulating Failures in Power Transformers: Application to Remote Condition Monitoring”, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 1591- 1602, 2007.##[9] Maxwell 2D field simulator, ANSOFT Corporation, February, 2002.##Lehner, G., “Electromagnetic Field Theory for Engineers and Physicists”, Springer, 2010##Chapman, S.J., “Electric Machinery Fundamentals”, New York: Mc-Grow-Hill.##Silvester, P.P. and Ferrari, R.L., “Finite Elements for Electrical Engineers”, Cambridge University Press, 1996.##Wang, H. and Butler, K.L., “Finite Element Analysis of Internal Winding Faults in Distribution Transformers”, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 422- 428, 2001.##Davenport, E.M., “Application of Finite Element Methods to the Modeling of Field Ingress to Structures”, Proceedings of International Conference on Computation in Electromagnetics, pp. 6– 9, 1991.##Zhou, P., McDermott, E.T., Cendes, Z.J., and Rahman, M. A., “Steady State Analysis of Synchronous Generators by a Couple Field-Circuit Method”, IEEE International Conference of Electric Machines and Drives, pp. 422- 428, WC2/2.1– WC2/2.3., 1997.##]
Analysis and Design of High Gain, and Low Power CMOS Distributed Amplifier Utilizing a Novel Gain-cell Based on Combining Inductively Peaking and Regulated Cascode Concepts
Analysis and Design of High Gain, and Low Power CMOS Distributed Amplifier Utilizing a Novel Gain-cell Based on Combining Inductively Peaking and Regulated Cascode Concepts
2
2
In this study an ultra-broad band, low-power, and high-gain CMOS Distributed Amplifier (CMOS-DA) utilizing a new gain-cell based on the inductively peaking cascaded structure is presented. It is created bycascading of inductively coupled common-source (CS) stage and Regulated Cascode Configuration (RGC).The proposed three-stage DA is simulated in 0.13 μm CMOS process. It achieves flat and high of 26.5 ±0.4 dB over the frequencies range from DC up to 13 GHz 3-dB bandwidth, and it dissipates only 9.95 mW.The IIP3 is simulated and achieved -10 dBm at 6 GHz. Also, simulated input referred 1-dB compressionpoint at 6 GHz achieves the value of -20 dBm. Both input and output matches are better than -11 dB. Toobtain the low power and high gain requirements, the advantages of the bulk terminal are exploited in theproposed CMOS-DA. It adopts the method of forward body biasing in output MOS transistor to achievehigher transconductance and lower power consumption. Additionally, the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation isperformed to take into account the risks associated with various input parameters which they receive little orno consideration in simulating of designs utilizing ideal components. MC simulation predicts an estimate ofthe good accuracy performance of the proposed design under various conditions.
1
In this study an ultra-broad band, low-power, and high-gain CMOS Distributed Amplifier (CMOS-DA) utilizing a new gain-cell based on the inductively peaking cascaded structure is presented. It is created bycascading of inductively coupled common-source (CS) stage and Regulated Cascode Configuration (RGC).The proposed three-stage DA is simulated in 0.13 μm CMOS process. It achieves flat and high of 26.5 ±0.4 dB over the frequencies range from DC up to 13 GHz 3-dB bandwidth, and it dissipates only 9.95 mW.The IIP3 is simulated and achieved -10 dBm at 6 GHz. Also, simulated input referred 1-dB compressionpoint at 6 GHz achieves the value of -20 dBm. Both input and output matches are better than -11 dB. Toobtain the low power and high gain requirements, the advantages of the bulk terminal are exploited in theproposed CMOS-DA. It adopts the method of forward body biasing in output MOS transistor to achievehigher transconductance and lower power consumption. Additionally, the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation isperformed to take into account the risks associated with various input parameters which they receive little orno consideration in simulating of designs utilizing ideal components. MC simulation predicts an estimate ofthe good accuracy performance of the proposed design under various conditions.
35
50
Z.
Baharvand
Z.
Baharvand
Iran
A.
Hakimi
A.
Hakimi
Iran
CMOS distributed amplifier
high-gain
ultra-broad band
low power
Regulated Cascode Configuration
[[1] A. Ghadiri and K. Moez, “A new loss-reduced distributed amplifier structure”, in Circuits and Systems, 2009. ISCAS 2009. IEEE International Symposium on, pp. 2029- 2032, 2009.##[2] A. Arbabian and A. M. Niknejad, “Design of a CMOS Tapered Cascaded Multistage Distributed Amplifier”, Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 57, pp. 938- 947, 2009.##[3] P. Chen, J.-C. Kao, P.-C. Huang, and H. Wang, “A novel distributed amplifier with high gain, low noise and high output power in 0.18-μm CMOS technology”, in Microwave Symposium Digest (MTT), 2011 IEEE MTT-S International, pp. 1- 4, 2011.##[4] G. Xin and N. Cam, “Low-power-consumption and high-gain CMOS distributed amplifiers using cascade of inductively coupled common-source gain cells for UWB systems”, Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 54, pp. 3278- 3283, 2006.##[5] J.-F. Chang and Y.-S. Lin, “A High-Performance Distributed Amplifier Using Multiple Noise Suppression Techniques”,Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, IEEE, vol. 21, pp. 495- 497, 2011.##[6] L. Yo-Sheng, C. Jin-Fa, and L. Shey-Shi, “Analysis and Design of CMOS Distributed Amplifier Using Inductively Peaking Cascaded Gain Cell for UWB Systems”, Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 59, pp. 2513- 2524, 2011.##[7] A. H. Farzamiyan and A. Hakimi, “Low-power CMOS distributed amplifier using new cascade gain cell for high and low gain modes”, Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, vol. 74, pp. 453- 460, 2013.##[8] J.-C. Chien, T.-Y. Chen, and L.-H. Lu, “A 9.5-dB 50-GHz Matrix Distributed Amplifier in 0.18-/spl mu/m CMOS”, in VLSI Circuits, 2006. Digest of Technical Papers. 2006 Symposium on, pp. 146- 147, 2006.##[9] J.-C. Chien and L.-H. Lu, “40-Gb/s high-gain distributed amplifiers with cascaded gain stages in 0.18-μm CMOS”, Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal of, vol. 42, pp. 2715- 2725, 2007.##[10] A. Arbabian and A. M. Niknejad, “A broadband distributed amplifier with internal feedback providing 660GHz GBW in 90nm CMOS”, in Solid-State Circuits Conference. ISSCC 2008. Digest of Technical Papers. IEEE International, 2008, pp. 196- 606, 2008.##[11] D. Hua, Z. Shun'an, C. Yueyang, and Z. Qian, “A 25-GHz 9-dB distributed amplifier in CMOS technology”, in Electric Information and Control Engineering (ICEICE), 2011 International Conference on, pp. 12- 15, 2011.##[12] T. H. Lee, The design of CMOS radio-frequency integrated circuits: Cambridge university press, 2004.##[13] D. M. Pozar, “Microwave engineering, 3rd”, Danvers, MA: Wiley, 2005.##[14] K. Entesari, A. R. Tavakoli, and A. Helmy, “CMOS Distributed Amplifiers With Extended Flat Bandwidth and Improved Input Matching Using Gate Line With Coupled Inductors”,Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 57, pp. 2862- 2871, 2009.##[15] P. Heydari, “Design and Analysis of a Performance-Optimized CMOS UWB Distributed LNA”, Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal of, vol. 42, pp. 1892- 1905, 2007.##[16] B. Razavi, Design of analog CMOS integrated circuits: Tata McGraw-Hill Education, 2002.##[17] B. Razavi, Fundamentals of microelectronics vol. 1: Wiley Hoboken, 2008.##[18] K. Moez and M. Elmasry, “A New Loss Compensation Technique for CMOS Distributed Amplifiers”, Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 56, pp. 185- 189, 2009.##[19] D. A. Neamen, “Semiconductor physics and devices”, 1992, 1994.##[20] M. Zakerhaghighi and A. Hakimi, “A Novel Topology of Variable Gain Distributed Amplifier in 0.13 μm CMOS Technology for UWB Applications”, Electronic Components and Materials, vol. 44, pp. 75- 83, 2014.##[21] J.-F. Chang and Y.-S. Lin, “DC∼ 10.5 GHz complimentary metal oxide semiconductor distributed amplifier with RC gate terminal network for ultra-wideband pulse radio systems”, IET microwaves, antennas & propagation, vol. 6, pp. 127- 134, 2012.##[22] D. Barras, F. Ellinger, H. Jackel, and W. Hirt, “A low supply voltage SiGe LNA for ultra-wideband frontends”, Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, IEEE, vol. 14, pp. 469- 471, 2004.##[23] H. Chih-Yin, S. Tzu-Yu, and S. S. H. Hsu, “CMOS Distributed Amplifiers Using Gate–Drain Transformer Feedback Technique”, Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 61, pp. 2901- 2910, 2013.##[24] V. Venkatraman and W. Burleson, “Impact of process variations on multi-level signaling for on-chip interconnects”, in VLSI Design, 2005. 18th International Conference on, pp. 362- 367, 2005.##[25] S. Raychaudhuri, “Introduction to monte carlo simulation”, in Simulation Conference WSC 2008. Winter, 2008, pp. 91- 100, 2008.##]
Power Amplifier Linearization Using Six-port Receiver for DVB-S2 Satellite Communications
Power Amplifier Linearization Using Six-port Receiver for DVB-S2 Satellite Communications
2
2
A digital look-up table adaptive predistortion technique using a six-port receiver for power amplifier linearization is presented. The system is designed in Ka-band for a DVB-S2 satellite link. We use a six-port receiver at the linearizationloop in place of classic heterodyne receivers. The six-port receiver is implemented by the use of passive microwavecircuits and detector diodes. This approach highly reduces cost and complexity of the linearization system. Thefabrication results of a five-port receiver operating in 23–29 GHz is presented in this paper. The simulation resultsconfirm suitability of using this architecture in the power amplifier linearization loop. The third order intermodulationproducts and the fifth order intermodulation products reduce about 43 dB and 25 dB respectively, after linearization ofthe power amplifier. The resulting spectrum of the output signal shows significant reduction of the intra-systeminterference to the adjacent networks which is mainly due to the nonlinearity effects of the power amplifier.
1
A digital look-up table adaptive predistortion technique using a six-port receiver for power amplifier linearization is presented. The system is designed in Ka-band for a DVB-S2 satellite link. We use a six-port receiver at the linearizationloop in place of classic heterodyne receivers. The six-port receiver is implemented by the use of passive microwavecircuits and detector diodes. This approach highly reduces cost and complexity of the linearization system. Thefabrication results of a five-port receiver operating in 23–29 GHz is presented in this paper. The simulation resultsconfirm suitability of using this architecture in the power amplifier linearization loop. The third order intermodulationproducts and the fifth order intermodulation products reduce about 43 dB and 25 dB respectively, after linearization ofthe power amplifier. The resulting spectrum of the output signal shows significant reduction of the intra-systeminterference to the adjacent networks which is mainly due to the nonlinearity effects of the power amplifier.
51
58
R.
Ebrahimi Ghiri
R.
Ebrahimi Ghiri
M.Sc. Student, Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
M.Sc. Student, Department of Electrical Engineerin
Iran
A.
Mohammadi
A.
Mohammadi
Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University of technology, Tehran, Iran
Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering,
Iran
A.
Abdipour
A.
Abdipour
Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University of technology, Tehran, Iran
Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering,
Iran
R.
Mirzavand
R.
Mirzavand
Assistant Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University of technology, Tehran, Iran
Assistant Professor, Department of Electrical
Iran
Ka-band
Digital Predistortion
Linearization
Six-port
Five-port
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