2010
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Adaptive Optimum Notch Filter for Periodic Noise Reduction in Digital Images
Adaptive Optimum Notch Filter for Periodic Noise Reduction in Digital Images
2
2
Periodic noises are unwished and spurious signals that create repetitive pattern on images and decreased the visual quality. Firstly, this paper investigates various methods for reducing the effects of the periodic noise in digital images. Then an adaptive optimum notch filter is proposed. In the proposed method, the regions of noise frequencies are determined by analyzing the spectral of noisy image. Then, the repetitive pattern of the periodic noise is produced by applying the corresponding notch pass filter. Finally, an output image with reduced periodic noise is restored by an optimum notch filter method. The results of the proposed adaptive optimum notch filter are compared by the mean and the median filtering techniques in frequency domain. The results show that the proposed filter has higher performances, visually and statistically, and has lower computational cost. In spite of the other compared methods, the proposed filter does not need to tune any parameters.
1
Periodic noises are unwished and spurious signals that create repetitive pattern on images and decreased the visual quality. Firstly, this paper investigates various methods for reducing the effects of the periodic noise in digital images. Then an adaptive optimum notch filter is proposed. In the proposed method, the regions of noise frequencies are determined by analyzing the spectral of noisy image. Then, the repetitive pattern of the periodic noise is produced by applying the corresponding notch pass filter. Finally, an output image with reduced periodic noise is restored by an optimum notch filter method. The results of the proposed adaptive optimum notch filter are compared by the mean and the median filtering techniques in frequency domain. The results show that the proposed filter has higher performances, visually and statistically, and has lower computational cost. In spite of the other compared methods, the proposed filter does not need to tune any parameters.
1
7


Payman
Moallemi
Corresponding Author, P. Moallem is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran (email:
p_moalem@ui.ac.ir).
Corresponding Author, P. Moallem is with
Iran


Majid
Behnampourii
M. Behnampour is with Iran Aircraft Manufacturing (HESA), Shain Shar, Isfahan, Iran (email: majidbehnam20@gmail.com).
M. Behnampour is with Iran Aircraft Manufacturing
Iran
Periodic Noise
Optimum Notch Filter
Detection of Noisy Frequencies
Region Growing
[[1] R.C. Gonzalez, R.E. Woods, Digital Image Processing, 3rd Edition, Prentice Hall, 2007. ##[2] R. Drigger, P. Cox, T. Edwards, Introduction to Infrared and ElectroOptical System, Artech House Publishers, 1999. ##[3] R.A. Schowengerdt, Remote Sensing: Models and Methods for Image processing, 2nd Edition, Academic Press, 1997. ##[4] V. Castelli, L.D. Bergman, Image Databases, Search and Retrieval of Digital Imagery, John Wiley & Sons, 2002. ##[5] T.Y. Ji, M.S. Li, Z. Lu, O.H. Wu, "Optimal morphological filter design using a bacterial swarming algorithm," in Proc. 2008 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, pp. 452458. ##[6] T.Y. Ji, Z. Lu, O.H. Wu, "Optimal soft morphological filter for periodic noise removal using a particle swarm optimiser with passive congregation," Signal Processing, Vol. 87, Issue 11, pp. 27992809, 2007. ##[7] I. Aizenburg, C. Butakoff, "A windowed Gaussian notch filter for quasiperiodic noise removal," Image and Vision Computing, Vol. 26, Issue 10, pp. 13471353. ##[8] I. Aizenberg, C. Butakoff, "Frequency Domain Medianlike Filter for Periodic and QuasiPeriodic Noise Removal," SPIE Proceeding, Vol. 4667, 181191, 2002. ##[9] I. Aizenberg, C. Butakoff, J. Astola, K. Egiazarian, "Nonlinear Frequency Domain Filter for the QuasiPeriodic Noise Removal," in Proc. 2002 International TICSP Workshop on Spectral Methods and Multirate Signal Processing, pp. 147153. ##[10] R. Venkateswarlu, K.V. Sujata, B. Venkateswara Rao, "Centroid Tracker and Point Selection," SPIE Proceeding, Vol. 1697, pp. 520529, 1992. ##[11] R. Szeliski, Computer Vision: Algorithms and Applications, Springer, 2010. ##[12] R.C. Gonzalez, R.E. Woods, S.L Eddins, Digital Image Processing using MATLAB, Gatesmark Publishing, 2nd Edition, 2009.##]
Geometric Modeling of Dubins Airplane Movement and its Metric
Geometric Modeling of Dubins Airplane Movement and its Metric
2
2
The timeoptimal trajectory for an airplane from some starting point to some final point is studied by many authors. Here, we consider the extension of robot planer motion of Dubins model in three dimensional spaces. In this model, the system has independent bounded control over both the altitude velocity and the turning rate of airplane movement in a nonobstacle space. Here, in this paper a geometrization of timeoptimal trajectory of Dubins airplane is also obtained. More intuitively, the metric related to this phenomenon is described as a geometry in space. It is shown that the distance traveled in movement of an airplane obeys certain conditions of a wellknown geometry called Finsler geometry. Moreover, it is proved that the geometry of movement of an airplane is a special Finsler metric known as Randers metric, and therefore, timeoptimal paths are geodesics of Randers metric.
1
The timeoptimal trajectory for an airplane from some starting point to some final point is studied by many authors. Here, we consider the extension of robot planer motion of Dubins model in three dimensional spaces. In this model, the system has independent bounded control over both the altitude velocity and the turning rate of airplane movement in a nonobstacle space. Here, in this paper a geometrization of timeoptimal trajectory of Dubins airplane is also obtained. More intuitively, the metric related to this phenomenon is described as a geometry in space. It is shown that the distance traveled in movement of an airplane obeys certain conditions of a wellknown geometry called Finsler geometry. Moreover, it is proved that the geometry of movement of an airplane is a special Finsler metric known as Randers metric, and therefore, timeoptimal paths are geodesics of Randers metric.
9
16


B.
Bidabadi
Corresponding Author, B. Bidabad, Department of Mathematics and Computer Sciences, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
(email:bidabad@aut.ac.ir
Corresponding Author, B. Bidabad, Department
Iran


M.
Sedaghat
M. Sedaghat, Department of Mathematics and Computer Sciences, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran. (email:
m.sedaghat@aut.ac.ir)
M. Sedaghat, Department of Mathematics and
Iran
Dubins airplane
Finsler metric
Indicatrix
Randers Metric
Control
TimeOptimal trajectories
[[1] B. Bidabad, M. Rafierad. Pure pursuit Navigation on Riemannian Manifolds. Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications 10 (2009) pp. 12651269. ##[2] D. Bao, S. S. Chern, Z. Shen. An Intoduction to RiemannFinsler Geometry, SpringerVerlag, 2000. ##[3] S. S. Chern and Z. Shen, RiemannFinsler Geometry, World Scientific Publishers, 2005. ##[4] Y. Zheng and P. Moore, TimeOptimal trajectories for twowheel driven cars tracking a moving target. In proc. of IEEE international conf. on automation and robotics, 1996. ##[5] D. J. Balkcom and M. T. Mason. TimeOptimal trajectories for bounded velocity differential drive vehicles. Int. J. Robot. Res,21(3), 2002. ##[6] H. Chitsaz, S. M. Lavalle, D. J. Balkcom and M. T. Mason. An explicit characterization of minimum wheelrotation paths for differential drives. In 12th IEEE international conference on Methods and Models in automation and robotics, 2006. ##[7] H. Chitsaz, S. M. Lavalle, D. J. Balkcom and M. T. Mason. Minimum wheelwheelrotation paths for differential drive mobile robots. In 12th IEEE international conference on automation and robotics, 2006. ##[8] D. Bao, C. Robles, Z. Shen. Zermelo Navigation on Riemannian Manifols. Journal of Differential Geometry,vol. 66,pp.391449, 2004. ##[9] Chachuat, B.C., Nonlinear and dynamic optimization: From theory to practice. IC32: Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, (2010). ##[10] L. E. Dubins, On curve of minimal length with a constraint on average curvature, and with prescribed initial and terminal positions and tangents. American Journal of mathematics, 1957. ##[11] H. Chitsaz and S. M. Lavalle, TimeOptimal paths for a Dubins airplane, Proceedings of the 46th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control New Orleans, LA, USA, Dec. 1214, 2007. ##[12] Antonelli, P.L., Iingarden, R.S., Matsumoto, M. The theory of Sprays and Finsler spaces with applications in Physics and Biology, Kluwer Academic Publishers. (1993). ##[13] S. Hota and D. Ghose, A modified Dubins Method for optimal path planning of a miniature air vehicle converging to a straight line path, American control conference, ACC 09, 23972402, (2009).##]
Optimization of an HTS Induction/Synchronous Motor According to Changing of HTS Tapes Critical Current by Analytical Hierarchy Process
Optimization of an HTS Induction/Synchronous Motor According to Changing of HTS Tapes Critical Current by Analytical Hierarchy Process
2
2
This paper represents the performance of a squirrelcage High Temperature Superconducting Induction/ Synchronous Motor (HTSISM) based on nonlinear electrical equivalent circuit. The structure of the HTSISM is the same as that of the squirrelcage type induction machine, and the secondary windings are fabricated by the use of the HTS wires. It has already been shown that based on the experiments that even this simple replacement realizes the excellent improvement of the performances such as coexistence of slip and synchronous rotations, higher efficiency (due to the synchronous operation), and robustness against the overload. In this paper, the transient modeling of this motor is performed by Matlab Simulink. Also, it is shown by FEM that starting and synchronous torque is extremely dependent on input voltage and critical current of superconducting tapes of the rotor. So, the starting and synchronous torque of the HTS induction motor can be improved with adjustment of the input voltage and critical current of the rotor HTS tapes. Also, in order to optimize both the starting and synchronous torques simultaneously, the relationship between these torques and the critical current of the HTS tapes have been investigated. Finally, according to the variation of the critical current, we optimized the design of the motor by analytical hierarchy process with finding the appropriate critical current for HTS tapes of rotor. The equations obtained are nonlinear, and then the typical Newton–Raphson method is used for the calculation.
1
This paper represents the performance of a squirrelcage High Temperature Superconducting Induction/ Synchronous Motor (HTSISM) based on nonlinear electrical equivalent circuit. The structure of the HTSISM is the same as that of the squirrelcage type induction machine, and the secondary windings are fabricated by the use of the HTS wires. It has already been shown that based on the experiments that even this simple replacement realizes the excellent improvement of the performances such as coexistence of slip and synchronous rotations, higher efficiency (due to the synchronous operation), and robustness against the overload. In this paper, the transient modeling of this motor is performed by Matlab Simulink. Also, it is shown by FEM that starting and synchronous torque is extremely dependent on input voltage and critical current of superconducting tapes of the rotor. So, the starting and synchronous torque of the HTS induction motor can be improved with adjustment of the input voltage and critical current of the rotor HTS tapes. Also, in order to optimize both the starting and synchronous torques simultaneously, the relationship between these torques and the critical current of the HTS tapes have been investigated. Finally, according to the variation of the critical current, we optimized the design of the motor by analytical hierarchy process with finding the appropriate critical current for HTS tapes of rotor. The equations obtained are nonlinear, and then the typical Newton–Raphson method is used for the calculation.
17
29


F.
Kazemzadehi
Corresponding Author, F. Kazemzadeh is with the High Voltage and Magnetic Material Research Center, Electrical Engineering Department,
Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Tehran 1684613114, Iran (email: fkazemzadeh@elec.iust.ac.ir).
Corresponding Author, F. Kazemzadeh is with
Iran


H.
Heydariii
H. Heydari is with the Center of Excellence for Power System Automation and Operation, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST),
Tehran 1684613114, Iran (email: heydari@iust.ac.ir).
H. Heydari is with the Center of Excellence
Iran
HTS induction motor optimization
superconducting rotor
HTSISM
Analytical Hierarchy Process
[[1] J. Sim, M. Park, H. Lim, G. Cha, J. Ji, and J. Lee, “Test of an induction motor with HTS wire at end ring and bars,” IEEE Trans. Applied Superconductivity, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 2231–2234, 2003. ##[2] J. Sim, K. Lee, G. Cha, and J. Lee, “Development of a HTS squirrel cage induction motor with HTS rotor bars,” IEEE Trans. Applied Superconductivity, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 916–919, 2004. ##[3] T. Song, and T. Ishigohka, “Experimental study on induction motor with superconducting secondary conductors”, IEEE Trans. Applied Superconductivity, vol. 17, no. 2, June 2007 ##[4] T Nakamura, K Nagao, T Nishimura, Y Ogama, M Kawamoto, T Okazaki, N Ayai and H Oyama, “ The direct relationship between output power and current carrying capability of rotor bars in HTS nduction/synchronous motor with the use of DIBSCCO tapes” , Superconductor Science and Technology, vol. 21, 2008. ##[5] T. Nakamura, H. Miyake, Y. Ogama, G. Morita, I. Muta, and T. Hoshino, “Fabrication and characteristics of HTS induction motor by the use of Bi2223/Ag squirrel cage rotor,” IEEE Trans. Applied Superconductivity, vol. 16, no. 2, June 2006 ##[6] T. Nakamura, Y. Ogama, and H. Miyake, “Performance of inverter fed HTS inductionsynchronous motor operated in liquid nitrogen,” IEEE Trans. Applied Superconductivity, vol. 17, no. 2, June 2007. ##[7] T. Nakamura, Y. Ogama, H. Miyake, K.. Nagao and T. Nishimura, “Novel rotating characteristics of a squirrelcagetype HTS induction /synchronous motor,” Superconductor Science and Technology., vol. 20, pp. 911918, June 2007. ##[8] K. Nagao, T. Nakamura, T. Nishimura, Y. Ogama, N. Kashima, S. Nagaya, K. Suzuki, T. Izumi and Y. Shiohara, “Development and fundamental characteristics of a YBCO superconducting induction/synchronous motor operated in liquid nitrogen” , Superconductor Science and Technology, vol. 21, pp.015022015026, 2008 ##[9] G. Morita, T. Nakamura, and I. Muta, “Theoretical analysis of a YBCO squirrelcage type induction motor based on an equivalent circuit,” Superconductor Science and Technology, vol. 19, pp. 473–478, 2006. ##[10] T. Nakamura, T. Nishimura, K. Nagao, K. Matsumura and Y. Ogama, “Theoretical analysis of high temperature superconducting induction/synchronous machine based on he nonlinear electrical equivalent circuit”, International Conference on Electrical Machines.2008 ##[11] K. Berger, J. Lévêque, D. Netter, B. Douine, and A. Rezzoug, “Influence of temperature and/or field dependences of the E J power law on trapped magnetic field in bulk YBaCuO,” IEEE Trans Applied Superconductivity, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 3028–3031, june 2007. ##[12] N. Schonborg, S. Schonborg and S. Homfelt, “Model of the temperature dependence of the hysteresis losses in a hightemperature superconductor,” Physica C, vol. 372376, pp. 17341738, 2002. ## Farhad Kazemzadeh and Hossein Heydari “Selecting a best point of Critical Current for the HTS Tapes of an HTS Induction/Synchronous Motor by Analytical Hierarchy Process” 26th international power systam conference, PSC 20##]
A New Minimum Order LumpedParameter Model of Circulatory System for Patients with Suffered Left and RightSided Heart Failure
A New Minimum Order LumpedParameter Model of Circulatory System for Patients with Suffered Left and RightSided Heart Failure
2
2
In this study a new minimum lumped electrical model of total circulatory system through numerical solutions to approximate the response of the human circulatory system was presented. Among five existent ventricular elastances as activity function of heart pumps, a more accurate model was chosen as well as the operation of baroreflex system to accommodate variations in heart rate and systemic vascular resistance of a native human circulatory system. The model with extracting the hemodynamic reaction of a patient with heart failure has the ability to study completely the influence of left heart failure on the right ventricle performance. The model can be used to analyze the variations of pressurevolume loop curve for normal hearts and dilated and hypertrophic heart failure patients at rest. The simulation results, in comparison with the clinical data, showed that the model could efficiently simulate the progressed states of heart failure with an acceptable accuracy and among all studied states of disease, hypertrophic LS and RSHF state caused to make critical conditions for the simulated patient.
1
In this study a new minimum lumped electrical model of total circulatory system through numerical solutions to approximate the response of the human circulatory system was presented. Among five existent ventricular elastances as activity function of heart pumps, a more accurate model was chosen as well as the operation of baroreflex system to accommodate variations in heart rate and systemic vascular resistance of a native human circulatory system. The model with extracting the hemodynamic reaction of a patient with heart failure has the ability to study completely the influence of left heart failure on the right ventricle performance. The model can be used to analyze the variations of pressurevolume loop curve for normal hearts and dilated and hypertrophic heart failure patients at rest. The simulation results, in comparison with the clinical data, showed that the model could efficiently simulate the progressed states of heart failure with an acceptable accuracy and among all studied states of disease, hypertrophic LS and RSHF state caused to make critical conditions for the simulated patient.
31
36


E.
Rouhanii
Corresponding Author, E. Rouhani is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Naghshejahan Institue, Esfahan, Iran (e.rouhani@aut.ac.ir)
Corresponding Author, E. Rouhani is with
Iran


S.
Gharibzadehii
S. Gharibzadeh is with the Department of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran (s.gharibzadeh@aut.ac.ir)
S. Gharibzadeh is with the Department of
Iran


A.
Abootalebiiii
A.Abootalebi is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Naghshejahan Institue, Esfahan, Iran (abootalebi_a@alumni.iut.ac.ir)
A.Abootalebi is with the Department of Electrical
Iran


A
.Karimianiv
A. Karimian is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Naghshejahan Institue, Esfahan, Iran (ali.karimian@pel.iaun.ac.ir)
A. Karimian is with the Department of Electrical
Iran


F.
Khalili Esfahaniv
F. Khalili Esfahani is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Naghshejahan Institue, Esfahan, Iran (farzadkhalili2010@gmail.com)
F. Khalili Esfahani is with the Department
Iran
Circulatory system model
lumped
heart failure (HF)
[[1] J. K. Asami, and T. Kitamura, "An Integrated Simulation Tool for Modelling the Human Circulatory System, " JSME Int. Journal, vol. 46, pp. 14411448, 2003. ##[2] S. Dubi, C. Dubi, and Y. Dubi, "A two phase harmonic model for left ventricular function," Elsevier Med. Eng. and Physics, vol. 29, pp. 984988, 2007. ##[3] J. L. Palladino, and J. P. Mulier, "A Noordergraaf, Defining Ventricular Elastance," AIC on IEEE MBC, 1998. ##[4] Y. Wu, P. E. Allaire, G. Tao, and D. Olsen, "Modelling, Estimation, and Control of Human Circulatory System with a Left Ventricular Assist Device, " IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol, vol. 15, pp. 754767, 2007. ##[5] V. V. Rideout, Mathematical and Computer Modelling of Physiological Systems, Prentice Hall publisher, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1991. ##[6] Y. Shi, and T. Korakianitis, "Numerical Simulation of Cardivascular Dynamics With Left Heart Failure and Inseries Pulsatile Ventricular Assist Device," Artificial organs, vol. 30, pp. 929948, 2006. ##[7] S. Choi, J. F. Antaki, J. R. Boston, and D Thomas, "A Sensorless Approach to Control of a Turbodynamic Left Ventricular Assist System, " IEEE Trans. Control Syst. Technol, vol. 9, pp. 473482, 2001. ##[8] S. Choi, J. R. Boston, and J. F. Antaki, "An Investigation of the Pump Operating Characteristics as a Novel Control Index for LVAD Control, " Int. J. Control, Auto. and Syst., vol. 3, pp. 100108, 2005. ##[9] P. S. Olegario, M. Yoshizawa, A. Tanaka, D. Ogawa, Y. Shiraishi, and T. Yambe, “Simulation of Atrial Wall Suction in a Continuous Flow Total Artificial Heart Model,” in Proc. 2006 SICEICASE Int. Joint Conf., pp. 23542357. ##[10] A. Ferreira, S. Chen, M. A. Simaan, J. R. Boston, and J. F. Antaki, “A Nonlinear StateSpace Model of a Combined Cardiovascular System and a Rotary Pump,” in Proc. 2005 44th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, and the European Control Conference., pp. 897902. ##[11] S. H. Chen, "BaroreflexBased Physiological Control of a Left Ventricular Assist Device," Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Elec. Eng., Univ. Pittsburgh, 2006. ##[12] Y. C. Yu, J. R. Boston, M. A. Simaan, and J. F. Antaki, "Minimally invasive estimation of systemic vascular parameters for artificial heart control, " Control Eng. Pract., vol. 10, pp. 277285, 2002. ##[13] Y. C. Yu, J. R. Boston, M. A. Simaan, and J. F. Antaki, "Estimation of Systemic Vascular Bed Parameters for Artificial Heart Control," IEEE Trans. Auto. Control, vol. 43, pp. 765778, 1998. ##[14] M. Guarini, J. Urzua, A. Cipriano, and González, "Estimation of Cardiac Function from Computer Analysis of the Arterial Pressure Waveform," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. 45, pp. 14201428, 1998. ##[15] E. Rouhani, "Modelling of Heart Failure in Rest and Exercise", M.sc dissertation, Dept. Biomedical Eng., Amirkabir Univ. Technology, 2010.##]
Assessment of Weighting Functions Used in Oppermann Codes in Polyphase Pulse Compression Radars
Assessment of Weighting Functions Used in Oppermann Codes in Polyphase Pulse Compression Radars
2
2
Polyphase is a common class of pulse compression waveforms in the radar systems. Oppermann code is one of the used codes with polyphone pattern. After compression, this code has little tolerant against Doppler shift in addition to its high side lobe level. This indicates that the use of Oppermann code is an unsuitable scheme to radars applications. This paper shows that the use of amplitude weighting functions improves properties of code and makes it an appropriate technique. Noticeable reduction in sidelobe and false alarm as well as the increase of the target detection ability and Doppler tolerant are the signature of amplitude weighting functions investigated and simulated in this study.
1
Polyphase is a common class of pulse compression waveforms in the radar systems. Oppermann code is one of the used codes with polyphone pattern. After compression, this code has little tolerant against Doppler shift in addition to its high side lobe level. This indicates that the use of Oppermann code is an unsuitable scheme to radars applications. This paper shows that the use of amplitude weighting functions improves properties of code and makes it an appropriate technique. Noticeable reduction in sidelobe and false alarm as well as the increase of the target detection ability and Doppler tolerant are the signature of amplitude weighting functions investigated and simulated in this study.
37
43


B.
Zakerii
B. Zakeri is with Babol University of Technology, Babol, Iran, (zakeri@nit.ac.ir)
B. Zakeri is with Babol University of Technology,
Iran


M.
Zahabiii
M. R. Zahabi Babol University of Technology, Babol, Iran, (zahabi@nit.ac.ir)
M. R. Zahabi Babol University of Technology,
Iran


S.
Alighale
Corresponding Author, S. Alighale is with Babol University of Technology, Babol, Iran, (Saeed.alighale@gmail.com)
Corresponding Author, S. Alighale is with
Iran
Pulse compression
polyphase
sidelobe
Oppermann code
window weighting function
Hamming
Hanning
Nuttallwin
Resolution
Peak power
width pulse
[[1] M. Skolnik, Introduction to radar system, 2nd ed., McGrawHill, NewYork, 1980. ##[2] P. E. Peace, Low probability of intercept radar, Artech House, Boston, 2004. ##[3] B. L. Lewis and F. F Kretschmer Jr., “A New Class of Polyphase Pulse Compression Codes and Techniques,” IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic System, Vol.17, No.3, 364372, May 1981. ##[4] I. Oppermann and B. S. Vucetic, “Complex Spreading Sequences with a Wide Range of Correlation Properties,” IEEE Trans. on Commun., vol. 45, pp. 365–375, Mar. 1997. ##[5] B. L. Lewis, “Range Sidelobe Reduction Technique for FM Derived Polyphase Codes,” IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic System, vol. 29, no. 3, July 1993. ##[6] F. F. Kretschmer and B. L. Lewis, “Doppler Properties of Polyphase Coded Pulse Compression Waveforms,” IEEE Trans. on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 521531, July 1983. ##[7] F.F. Kretschmer Jr. and L. R. Welch, “Sidelobe Reduction Techniques for Polyphase Pulse Compression Codes,” IEEE International Radar conference, 2001. p.4416. ##[8] P. Fan and M. Darnell, “Sequence Design for Communications Applications,” Somerset: Research Studies Press, 1996. ##[9] .J. Zepernick and A. Finger, “Pseudo Random Signal Processing: Theory and Application,” Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2005. ##[10] M.Jamil, H.J. Zepernick and M. I. Pettersson, “Performance Assessment of Polyphase Pulse Compression Codes,” IEEE Int. Symp. On SpreadSpect. Techn. and Appl., Bologna, Italy, pp. 161165, Aug. 2008.##]
Biomechanical Analysis of CNS Gray Matter in Tension and Compression
Biomechanical Analysis of CNS Gray Matter in Tension and Compression
2
2
The purpose of this study is to survey cross section changes of the animal brain samples during the tension and compression tests and comparison of the experimental results for three animals: bovine, sheep, and rabbit. A linear elastic theory with considering the necking in tension and barreling in compression has been considered for brain tissue. Bridgman method for tension and cross section updating method (using a picture analyzing through a computer program to trace cross section changes during the test) for compression has been applied in order to consider necking and barreling. It is shown that the effect of cross section changes of the samples during the test is not negligible. Differences in the behavior of brain tissue of bovine, sheep, and rabbit in both compression and tension are discussed. Results are in good agreement with previous works in the literature.
1

45
50


Sina
Mehdizadehi
S. Mehdizadeh is with the Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran (email:
s.mehdizadeh@aut.ac.ir).
S. Mehdizadeh is with the Faculty of Biomedical
Iran


Siamak
Najarianii
Corresponding Author, S. Najarian is with the Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran (email:
najarian@aut.ac.ir).
Corresponding Author, S. Najarian is with
Iran


Farhad
Farmanzadiii
F. Farmanzad is with the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran (email:
f.farmanzad@sazeh.co.ir).
F. Farmanzad is with the Department of Mechanical
Iran


Mehdi
Khoshgoftariv
M. Khoshgoftar is with the Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran (email:
p.khoshgoftar.eng@gmail.com).
M. Khoshgoftar is with the Faculty of Biomedical
Iran
Biomechanics
Brain Tissue
Mechanical Behavior
Tension
Compression
[[1] Farmanzad, F.; Najarian, S.; Eslami, M.; Seddighi, A.S.; “A novel model for biomechanical behavior of human brain in epidural hematoma injuries”, BioMed. Mater. and Eng., vol. 17 (2), p.p. 119125, 2007. ##[2] Pott, P.P.; Scharf, H.P.; Schwarz, M.L.R.; “Today’s state of the art surgical robotics”, J. of Comput. Aid. Surg., vol. 10 (2), p.p. 101132, 2005. ##[3] Taylor, Z.; Miller, K.; “Reassessment of brain elasticity for analysis of biomechanics of hydrocephalus”, J. of Biomech. Eng., vol. 37, p.p. 12631269, 2005. ##[4] Walsh, E.K.; Schettini, A.; “Elastic behavior of brain tissue in vivo”, Am. J. Physiol., vol. 230, p.p. 10581062, 1976. ##[5] Ommaya, A.K.; “Mechanical properties of tissues of the nervous system”, J. of Biomech., vol. 1, p.p. 127, 1968. ##[6] Estes, M.S.; McElhaney, J.H.; “Response of brain tissue of compressive loading”, ASME Pub., 70BHF13, 4, 1970. ##[7] Miller, K.; “Constitutive modeling of brain tissue: Experiment and theory”, J. of Biomech., vol. 30, p.p. 11151121, 1997. ##[8] Miller, K.; Chinzei, K.; “Mechanical properties of brain tissue in tension”, J. of Biomech., vol 35, p.p. 483490, 2002. ##[9] Bilston, L.E.; Liu, Z.; PhanThien, N.; “Large strain behavior of brain tissue in shear: Some experimental data and differential constitutive model”, Biorheolog, vol. 38, p.p. 335345, 2001. ##[10] Brands, D.W.A.; Bovendeerd, P.H.M.; Peters, G.W.M.; Wismans, J.S.H.M.; “The large shear strain dynamic behavior of invitro porcine brain tissue and the silicone gel model material”, Proc. of the 44th Stapp Car Crash Conf., 200001SC17, p.p. 249260, 2000. ##[11] Donnely, B.R.; Medige, J.; “Shear properties of human brain tissue”, J. of Biomech. Engin., vol. 119, p.p. 423432, 1997. ##[12] Prange, M.T.; Margulies, S.S.; “Regional, directional, and agedependent properties of the brain undergoing large deformation”, J. of Biomech. Eng., vol. 124, p.p. 244252, 2002. ##[13] Miller, K.; “Constitutive model of brain tissue suitable for finite element analysis of surgical procedures”, J. of Biomech., vol. 32, p.p. 531537, 1999. ##[14] Franceschini, G.; Bigoni, D.; Regitni, P.; Holzapfel, G.A.; “Brain tissue deforms similarly to filled elastomers and follows consolidation theory”, J. of the Mech. and Physics of Solids, vol. 54: p.p. 2592–2620, 2006. ##[15] Hashemi, J.; Bennettv, R.; “Materials Characterization: Tensile Test”, Mater. and Mech. Laborat., ME 3328, 2003. ##[16] Ling, Y.; “Uniaxial True StressStrain after Necking”, AMP J. of Technolog., vol. 5,1996. ##[17] Velardi, F.; Fraternali, F.; Angelillo, M.; “Anisotropic constitutive equations and experimental tensile behavior of brain tissue”, Biomech. Model Mechanbiol., vol. 5, p.p. 53–61, 2006. ##[18] Mendis, K.K.; Stalnaker, R.L.; Advani, S.H.; “A constitutive relationship for large deformation finite element modelling of brain tissue”, J. of Biomech. Eng., vol. 117, p.p. 279–285, 1995. ##[19] Khoshgoftar, M.; Najarian, S.; Farmanzad, F.; “A Biomechanical Composite Model to Determine Effective Elastic Moduli of the CNS Gray Matter”, Am. J. of Appl. Sci., vol. 4, p.p. 918924, 2007. ##[20] Miller, K.; Chinzei, K.; Orssengo, G.; Bednarz, P.; “Mechanical properties of brain tissue in vivo: experiment and computer simulation”, J. of Biomech., vol. 33, p.p. 13691376, 2000.##]
Image Steganalysis Based on CoOccurrences of Integer Wavelet Coefficients
Image Steganalysis Based on CoOccurrences of Integer Wavelet Coefficients
2
2
We present a steganalysis scheme for LSB matching steganography based on feature vectors extracted from integer wavelet transform (IWT). In integer wavelet decomposition of an image, the coefficients will be integer, so we can calculate cooccurrence matrix of them without rounding the coefficients. Before calculation of cooccurrence matrices, we clip some of the most significant bitplanes of the coefficients. By this preprocessing, in addition to reducing the dimension of feature vector the effects of the embedding are also preserved. We test our algorithm for different embedding rats using Fisher linear discrimination (FLD) classifier and by comparing it with the current stateoftheart steganalyzers; it is shown that the proposed scheme outperforms them by significant margin.
1
We present a steganalysis scheme for LSB matching steganography based on feature vectors extracted from integer wavelet transform (IWT). In integer wavelet decomposition of an image, the coefficients will be integer, so we can calculate cooccurrence matrix of them without rounding the coefficients. Before calculation of cooccurrence matrices, we clip some of the most significant bitplanes of the coefficients. By this preprocessing, in addition to reducing the dimension of feature vector the effects of the embedding are also preserved. We test our algorithm for different embedding rats using Fisher linear discrimination (FLD) classifier and by comparing it with the current stateoftheart steganalyzers; it is shown that the proposed scheme outperforms them by significant margin.
51
59


M.
Abolghasemii
Corresponding Author, M. Abolghasemi is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
(email: mo_abolghasemi@aut.ac.ir).
Corresponding Author, M. Abolghasemi is with
Iran


H.
Aghaeiniaii
H. Aghaeinia is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran (email: aghaeini@aut.ac.ir).
H. Aghaeinia is with the Department of Electrical
Iran


K.
Faeziii
K. Faez is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran (email: kfaez@aut.ac.ir).
K. Faez is with the Department of Electrical
Iran
Integer wavelet transform (IWT)
LSB matching
Steganography
Steganalysis
[[1] Mehdi Kharrazi, Husrev T. Sencar, and Nasir Memon, “Image Steganography: Concepts and Practice” WSPC/Lecture Notes Series, April 22, 2004. ##[2] Mehdi Kharrazi, Husrev T. Sencar, Nasir Memon, "Performance study of common image steganography and steganalysis techniques" Journal of Electronic Imaging 15(4), 041104 (Oct–Dec 2006). ##[3] R. Chandramouli, "A mathematical framework for active steganalysis", Multimedia Systems © SpringerVerlag, Vol. 9, pp. 303–311, 2003. ##[4] J. J. Harmsen, W. A. Pearlman, “Steganalysis of additive noise modelable information hiding” In E. J. Delp and P. W. Wong, editors, Proceedings SPIE, Electronic Imaging, Security, Steganography,and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents V, vol. 5020, pp. 131142, Santa Clara, CA, January, 2003. ##[5] A. Ker, "Steganalysis of LSB Matching in Grayscale Images" IEEE Signal Process. Lett., vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 441–444, June, 2005. ##[6] G. Xuan, Y. Q. Shi, C. Huang, D. Fu, X. Zhu, P. Chai, J. Gao, “Steganalysis Using HighDimensional Features Derived from Cooccurrence Matrix and ClassWise NonPrincipal Components Analysis (CNPCA)” IWDW, pp. 4960, 2006 ##[7] M. Goljan, J. Fridrich, and T. Holotyak, “New blind steganalysis and its implications,” In E. J. Delp and P. W. Wong, editors, Proceedings SPIE, Electronic Imaging, Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents VIII, vol. 6072, pp. 113, January, 2006. ##[8] J. Zhang, I. J. Cox, and G. Do¨err, “Steganalysis for LSB matching in images with highfrequency noise,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing, October 2007. ##[9] G. Cancelli, G. Doërr, I. J. Cox, and M. Barni, " Detection Of ±1 LSB Steganography Based On The Amplitude Of Histogram Local Extrema", International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP) 2008. ##[10] G. Cancelli, G. Doërr, I. J. Cox, and M. Barni, “A comparative study of ±1 steganalyzers,” In Proceedings IEEE, International Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing, pp. 791794, Queensland, Australia, October 2008. ##[11] M. Abolghasemi, H. Aghainia, K. Faez, M. A. Mehrabi, “Detection of LSB±1 steganography based on cooccurrence matrix and bit plane clipping”, SPIE and IS&T. Journal of Electronic Imaging, vol. 19(1), pp. 19, March 2010. ##[12] Haralick, R.M. "Textural features for image classification” IEEE Trans. Systems Man Cybernetics. SMC3 (1973). ##[13] T. Fawcett, “ROC graphs: Notes and practical considerations for researchers,” HP Laboratories, Tech. Rep., March 2004. ##]
PD Controller Design with H¥ Performance for Linear Systems with Input Delay
PD Controller Design with H¥ Performance for Linear Systems with Input Delay
2
2
This paper presents H∞ control problem for inputdelayed systems. A neutral system approach is considered to the design of PD controller for input delay systems in presence of uncertain timeinvariant delay. Using this approach, the resulting closedloop system turns into a specific timedelay system of neutral type. The significant specification of this neutral system is that its delayed coefficient terms depend on the controller parameters. This condition provides challenging issues in theoretical research and provides new horizons in applications. In the present paper, new delaydependent sufficient condition is derived for the existence of H∞ controller in terms of matrix inequalities. The resulting H∞ controller stabilizes the closedloop neutral system and assures that the H∞ performance norm to be less than a prescribed level. An application example is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
1
This paper presents H∞ control problem for inputdelayed systems. A neutral system approach is considered to the design of PD controller for input delay systems in presence of uncertain timeinvariant delay. Using this approach, the resulting closedloop system turns into a specific timedelay system of neutral type. The significant specification of this neutral system is that its delayed coefficient terms depend on the controller parameters. This condition provides challenging issues in theoretical research and provides new horizons in applications. In the present paper, new delaydependent sufficient condition is derived for the existence of H∞ controller in terms of matrix inequalities. The resulting H∞ controller stabilizes the closedloop neutral system and assures that the H∞ performance norm to be less than a prescribed level. An application example is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
57
64


Ala
Shariati
Corresponding Author, The authors are with the Advanced Robotic and Automates Systems (ARAS), Faculty of Electrical and Computer
Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran, (email: Shariati@eetd.kntu.ac.ir).
Corresponding Author, The authors are with
Iran


Hamid D.
Taghirad
Corresponding Author, The authors are with the Advanced Robotic and Automates Systems (ARAS), Faculty of Electrical and Computer
Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran, (email: Shariati@eetd.kntu.ac.ir).
Corresponding Author, The authors are with
Iran
H¥ Control
Neutral Systems
Uncertain TimeInvariant Delay
PD Control
Linear matrix inequality
[[1] M. Deng, A. Inoue, "Networked nonlinear control for an aluminum plate thermal process with timedelays," International Journal of Systems Science, vol. 39, pp. 10751080, 2008. ##[2] A. V. Rezounenko, J. Wu, "A NonLocal PDE Model for Population Dynamics with StateSelective Delay: Local Theory and Global Attractors," Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics, vol. 190, pp. 99113, 2006. ##[3] L. E. Zárate,, F. R. Bittencout, "Representation and Control of the Cold Rolling Process Through Artificial Neural Networks via Sensitivity Factors," Journal of Material Processing Technology, vol. 197, pp. 344362, 2008. ##[4] R. Ortega, A. de Rinaldis, M. W. Spong, S. Lee and K. Nan, "On Compensation of Wave Reflections in Transmission Lines and Applications to the Overvoltage Problem AC Motor Drives," IEEE Transaction on Automatic Control, vol. 49, pp. 17571762, 2004. ##[5] J.D. Chen, "LMIbased robust H∞ control of neutral systems with state and input delays," Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications, vol. 126, pp. 553570, 2005. ##[6] C.H. Lien, "H∞ observerbased control for a class of uncertain neutral timedelay systems via LMI optimization approach," Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications, vol. 127, pp. 129144, 2005. ##[7] U. Baser, "The H∞ control problem for neutral systems with multiple delays,” presented at the 15th IFAC World Congress, Barcelona, Spain, 2002. ##[8] U. Baser, "Output feedback H∞ control problem for linear neutral systems: delay independent case," Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control, vol. 125, pp. 177185, 2003. ##[9] V. Suplin, E. Fridman, U. Shaked, "H∞ control of linear uncertain timedelay systemsa projection approach, " IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 51, pp. 680685, 2006. ##[10] X.M Sun, W. Wang, G.P. Liu, J. Zhao, "Stability analysis for linear switched systems with time varying delay," IEEE Systems, Man and Cybernetics, vol. 38, pp. 528533, 2008. ##[11] X. Liu, W. Yu, L. Wang, "Stability analysis for continuoustime positive systems with timevarying delays," IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 55, pp. 10241028, 2010. ##[12] A. Shariati, H.D. Taghirad, B. Labibi, "Delaydependent H∞ control linear systems with timevarying delay using proportionalderivative state feedback," in proc. 2010 Mediterranean Conference on Control & Automation (MED), Marrakesh, Morocco, pp. 10061012. ##[13] G.J. Silva, A. Datta, S. P. Bhattacharyya, "New results on the synthesis of PID controllers," IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 47, pp. 241252, 2002. ##[14] H. Xu, A. Datta, S.P. Bhattacharyya, "PID stabilization of LTI plants with timedelay," in Proc. 2003 IEEE Conf. Dec. Cont., Maui, HI, pp. 40384043. ##[15] D.J. Wang, "Synthesis of PID controllers for highorder plants with timedelay," Journal of Process Control, vol. 19, pp. 1763–1768, 2009. ##[16] N. Hohenbichler, "All stabilizing PID controllers for time delay systems," Automatica, vol. 159, pp. 26782684, 2009. ##[17] P.E. Dupont, "Avoiding stickslip through PD control, "IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 39, pp. 10941097, 1994. ##[18] C. Yang, Q. Huang, H. Jiang, O.O. Peter, J. Han, "PD control with gravity compensation for hydraulic 6DOF parallel manipulator," Mechanism and Machine Theory, vol. 45, pp. 666677, 2010. ##[19] T. Häggland, "A predictive PI controller for processes with long dead times," IEEE Control System Magazine, vol. 12, pp. 5760, 1992. ##[20] J.E. NormyRico, C. Bordons, E.F. Camacho, "Improving of deadtime compensating PI controllers," Control Engineering Practice, vol. 5, pp. 801810, 1997. ##[21] J. Wei; H. Fang, H.O. Wang, "Consensus of multiagent system with communication delays by selfdelay PD control," in proc. 2010 World Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation, Jinan, China, pp. 22952300. ##[22] J.E. NormyRico, C. Bordons, E.F. Camacho, "Unified approach for robust deadtime compensator design," Journal of Process Control, vol. 19, pp. 3847, 2009. ##[23] K.T. Erickson, J.L. Hedrick, Plantwide Process Control, JohnWiley, 1999. ##[24] Y.S. Moon, P. Park, W.H. Kwon, Y.S. Lee, "Delay dependent robust stabilization of uncertain state delayed systems," International Journal of Control, vol. 74, pp. 14471455, 2001. ##[25] A. Shariati, H.D. Taghirad, B. Labibi, "Delaydependent H¥ control of linear systems with timevarying input delay using state derivative feedback" Journal of Control Engineering and Applied Informatics, to be published.##]