2011
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A Hierarchical SLAM/GPS/INS Sensor Fusion with WLFP for Flying RoboSAR's Navigation
A Hierarchical SLAM/GPS/INS Sensor Fusion with WLFP for Flying RoboSAR's Navigation
2
2
In this paper, we present the results of a hierarchical SLAM/GPS/INS/WLFP sensor fusion to be used in navigation system devices. Due to low quality of the inertial sensors, even a shortterm GPS failure can lower the integrated navigation performance significantly. In addition, in GPS denied environments, most navigation systems need a separate assisting resource, in order to increase the availability and reliability of the device. When the GPS service/information is available, the integrated SLAM system arranges for a landmarkbased map using a GPS/INS feature. But in case of inaccessibility of GPS information, the latest formerly produced map plays an important role in decreasing the INS errors. In addition, a Wireless Fingerprinting (WLFP) mechanism helps us limit the errors in the system. The results of the proposed method decreases the average estimation precision on the order of 2.6m, without any performance degradation and in different experiments, which is the maximum sustainable error (below 2.66m) for flyer landing on the base. The mentioned method could be used in computer networks to schedule the services too.
1
In this paper, we present the results of a hierarchical SLAM/GPS/INS/WLFP sensor fusion to be used in navigation system devices. Due to low quality of the inertial sensors, even a shortterm GPS failure can lower the integrated navigation performance significantly. In addition, in GPS denied environments, most navigation systems need a separate assisting resource, in order to increase the availability and reliability of the device. When the GPS service/information is available, the integrated SLAM system arranges for a landmarkbased map using a GPS/INS feature. But in case of inaccessibility of GPS information, the latest formerly produced map plays an important role in decreasing the INS errors. In addition, a Wireless Fingerprinting (WLFP) mechanism helps us limit the errors in the system. The results of the proposed method decreases the average estimation precision on the order of 2.6m, without any performance degradation and in different experiments, which is the maximum sustainable error (below 2.66m) for flyer landing on the base. The mentioned method could be used in computer networks to schedule the services too.
1
10


S.M.
Mirzababaei
Corresponding Author, S.M. Mirzababaei is the Department of Computer Engineering and IT Department, Amirkabir University of
Technology, Tehran, Iran (email: {mirzababaei,akbarif}@aut.ac.ir).
Corresponding Author, S.M. Mirzababaei is
Iran


M.K.
Akbariii
M.K. Akbari is with the Department of Computer Engineering and IT Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran (email:
{mirzababaei,akbarif}@aut.ac.ir).
M.K. Akbari is with the Department of Computer
Iran
Inertial Navigation System
GPS
Car Navigation
Unmanned Autonomous Vehicle
Wireless Fingerprint
[[1] A.B. Chatfield, ”Fundamentals of High Accuracy Inertial Navigation", American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 1997. ##[2] S. Kim, K. Choi, S. Lee, J. Choi, T. Hwang, B. Jang, and J. Lee, "A Bimodal Approach for Land Vehicle Localization", ETRI Journal, vol. 26, no. 5, Oct. 2004, pp. 497500. ##[3] S.Y. Cho, B.D. Kim, Y.S. Cho, and W.S. Choi, "Multimodel Switching for Car Navigation Containing LowGrade IMU and GPS Receiver", ETRI Journal, vol. 29, no. 5, Oct. 2007, pp. 688690. ##[4] M.S. Grewal, L.R. Weill and A.P. Andrews, "Global Positioning Systems, Inertial Navigation, and Integration", John Wiley & Sons, Inc ., 2001. ##[5] W.R. Baker and R.W. Clem, "Terrain contour matching (TERCOM) premier", ASPTR7761, Aeronautical Systems Division, WrightPatterson, 1997. ##[6] S.B. Williams, M.W.M.G. Dissanayake and H. DurrantWhyte, "Towards terrainaided navigation for underwater robotics ", In Advanced Robotics, 15(5):533550, 2001. ##[7] J. Kim and S. Sukkarieh, "Autonomous Airborne Navigation in Unknown Terrain Environments", IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 40(3):10311045, July, 2004. ##[8] S.Y. Cho and W. S. Choi, "Performance Enhancement of LowCostLand Navigation System for LocationBased Service", ETRI Journal, vol. 28, no. 2, Apr. 2006, pp. 131144. ##[9] J. Guivant and E. Nebot, "Optimizations of the simultaneous localization and map building algorithm for realtime implementation", IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, 17(3):242257, 2001. ##[10] T. Weiss, J. Spruck and K. Dietmayer, "A Scalable Sensor Fusion Framework for the Localization of a Vehicle on Detailed Digital Maps Using Laserscanners", Multisensor Fusion and Integration for Intelligent Systems, IEEE International Conference, pp.444–449, Sept. 2006. ##[11] M. Miettinen, M. Ohman, A. Visala, P. Forsman, "Simultaneous Localization and Mapping for Forest Harvesters", IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp.517522., Apr. 2007. ##[12] D. Schleicher, L.M. Bergasa, M. Ocana, R. Barea, M.E. Lopez, "RealTime Hierarchical Outdoor SLAM Based on Stereovision and GPS Fusion", Dept. of Electronics, Univ. of Alcala, Madrid, Spain; IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, ISSN: 15249050 Sep. 2009. ##[13] P. Bahl and V. N. Padmanabhan, "RADAR: an inbuilding RFbased user location and tracking system", in Proc. IEEE 19th Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM'00), pp. 775784, Mar. 2000. ##[14] P. Prasithsangaree, P. Krishnamurthy, and P. K. Chrysanthis, "On indoor position location with wireless LANs", in Proc. IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor, and Mobile Radio Communications Sept. 2002. ##[15] Z. Xiang, S. Song, J. Chen, H. Wang, J. Huang, and X. Gao, "A wireless LANbased indoor positioning technology", IBM Journal of Research and Development, vol. 48, no. 5,6,( Sept, Nov) pp. 617626, 2004. ##[16] H. Arghavan, "Processing Unit Design and Implementation of Fault Tolerant Navigation System", Master of Science Thesis, AmirkabirUniversity of Technology, 2003. ##[17] K.R. Britting, "Inertial Navigation Systems Analysis", John Wiley & Sons, 1971. ##[18] S. EunHwan, "Accuracy improvement Of Low Cost INS/GPS for Land Applications", UCGE Reports Number 20156, The University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada, 2001. ##[19] R.G. Brown and P.Y.C. Hwang, "Introduction to random signals and applied Kalman filtering", 3rd Ed., New York, Wiley, 1997. ##[20] J.A. Farrell and M. Barth, "The Global Positioning System & Inertial Navigation", New York, 2000. ##[21] O.S. Salychev, "Inertial Systems in Navigation and Geophysics", Bauman MSTU Press, Moscow, 1998. ##[22] A.H. Mohamed, "Optimizing the Estimation Procedure in INS/GPS Integration for Kinematic Applications", UCGE Reports Number 20127, Dept. of Geomatics Engineering, The university of Calgary, 1999. ##[23] S.D. Conte and C.D. Boor, "Elementary Numerical Analysis: An Algorithmic Approach", McGrawHill, 3rd edition, 1980. ##[24] J. Kim and S. Sukkarieh, "6Dof SLAM aided GNSS/INS Navigation in GNSS Denied and Unknown Environments", Journal of Global Positioning Systems, v. 4, pp. 120, 2005. ##[25] J. Kim, "Autonomous Navigation for Airborne Applications", Ph.D. thesis, Australian Centre for Field Robotics, The University of Sydney, 2004. ##[26] J. Kim, M. Ridley, E. Nettleton, S. Sukkarieh, "Realtime Experiment of Feature Tracking/Mapping using a lowcost Vision and GPS/INS System on am UAV platform", Journal of Global Positioning Systems, v. 3, pp. 167, 2004. ##[27] R. Battiti, M. Brunato, and A. Villani, "Statistical learning theory for location fingerprinting in wireless lans", Technical Report. Oct. 2002 , [Online]. Available: http://rtm.science.unitn.it/»battiti/archive/86.pdf ##[28] Webpage of allied company, http://www.alliedworld.com/ servlets/Home. ##[29] Work data, Available: at http://ardent.unitn.it/software/ data. ##[30] R. Battiti, A. Villani, and T. Le Nhat, "Neural network models for intelligent networks: deriving the location from signal patterns", in Proc. of AINS2002, UCLA, 2002. ##[31] K.W. Min, K.W. Nam, and J.W. Kim, "Multilevel Location Trigger in Distributed Mobile Environments for LocationBased Services", ETRI Journal, vol. 29, no. 1, Feb. 2007, pp. 107109. ##]
Robust Control of Encoderless Synchronous Reluctance Motor Drives Based on Adaptive Backstepping and InputOutput Feedback Linearization Techniques
Robust Control of Encoderless Synchronous Reluctance Motor Drives Based on Adaptive Backstepping and InputOutput Feedback Linearization Techniques
2
2
In this paper, the design and implementation of adaptive speed controller for a sensorless synchronous reluctance motor (SynRM) drive system is proposed. A combination of wellknown adaptive inputoutput feedback linearization (AIOFL) and adaptive backstepping (ABS) techniques are used for speed tracking control of SynRM. The AIOFL controller is capable of estimating motor twoaxis inductances (Ld, Lq), simultaneously. The overall stability of the proposed control and Persistency of Excitation (PE) condition are proved based on Lyapunov theory. In the proposed control drive system, the maximum torque control (MTC) scheme and constant current in inductive axis control (CCIAC) are applied to generate the motor d and q axis reference currents which are needed for the AIOFL controller. In addition, an ABS speed controller is designed to compensate for the machine parameter uncertainties and load torque disturbances. Another contribution of this paper is to estimate the rotor speed and position in very low speed by using 1) a simple technique for eliminating the voltage sensors, 2) a simple method for online estimation of the stator resistance, and 3) modeling the voltage drop of the inverter power switches. Finally, the validity and capability of the proposed method are verified through simulation and experimental studies.
1
In this paper, the design and implementation of adaptive speed controller for a sensorless synchronous reluctance motor (SynRM) drive system is proposed. A combination of wellknown adaptive inputoutput feedback linearization (AIOFL) and adaptive backstepping (ABS) techniques are used for speed tracking control of SynRM. The AIOFL controller is capable of estimating motor twoaxis inductances (Ld, Lq), simultaneously. The overall stability of the proposed control and Persistency of Excitation (PE) condition are proved based on Lyapunov theory. In the proposed control drive system, the maximum torque control (MTC) scheme and constant current in inductive axis control (CCIAC) are applied to generate the motor d and q axis reference currents which are needed for the AIOFL controller. In addition, an ABS speed controller is designed to compensate for the machine parameter uncertainties and load torque disturbances. Another contribution of this paper is to estimate the rotor speed and position in very low speed by using 1) a simple technique for eliminating the voltage sensors, 2) a simple method for online estimation of the stator resistance, and 3) modeling the voltage drop of the inverter power switches. Finally, the validity and capability of the proposed method are verified through simulation and experimental studies.
11
23


Jafar
Soltanii
Jafar Soltani is with the Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Khomeinishahr Branch, Esfahan, Iran (email: jsoltani@iaukhsh.ac.ir).
Jafar Soltani is with the Faculty of Engineering,
Iran


Hossein
Abootorabi Zarchi
Corresponding Author, Hossein Abootorabi Zarchi is with the Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran (email:
hazarchi@gmail.com).
Corresponding Author, Hossein Abootorabi
Iran
hazarchi@gmail.com
Synchronous Reluctance Motor
Adaptive Backstepping and InputOutput Feedback Linearization
Encoderless
[[1] R. Morales Caporal and M. Pacas, “A Predictive Torque Control for the Synchronous Reluctance Machine taking into account the magnetic cross saturation”, IEEE Trans. On Ind. Electronics, vol. 54, No. 2, pp. 11611167, Apr. 2007. ##[2] T. H. Liu and H. H. Hsu, “Adaptive Controller Design for a Synchronous Reluctance Motor Drive System with Direct Torque Control”, IET Electric Power Appl., vol. 1, No.5, pp. 815–824 815, 2007. ##[3] H.F. Hofmann, S.R. Sanders, and A. ELAntably, “Statorfluxoriented vector control of synchronous reluctance Machines with maximized efficiency”, IEEE Trans. On Industrial Electronics, vol. 51, Issue 5, pp. 10661072, Oct. 2004. ##[4] H. D. Lee, S. J. Kang, and S. K. Sul, “EfficiencyOptimized DTC of Synchronous Reluctance Motor using Feedback Linearization”, IEEE Trans. On Ind. Elec., vol.46, No.1, pp. 192198, 1999. ##[5] P. Guglielmi, M. Pastorelli and A. Vagati, ”Impact of crosssaturation in sensorless control of transverselaminated synchronous reluctance motors”, IEEE Trans. On Ind. Elect., vol. 53, Issue 2, , pp. 429439, 2006. ##[6] A. Vagati, M. Pastorelli, and G. Franceschini, “Highperformance control of synchronous reluctance motors”, IEEE Trans. on Industry Appl., vol. 33, Issue 4, JulyAug. 1997, . pp. 983991, 2004. ##[7] E. M. Rashad, T. S. Radwan, and M. A. Rahman, “A MTPA Vector Control Strategy for Synchronous Reluctance Motors Considering Saturation and Iron Losses”, IEEE IAS, pp. 24112417, 2005. ##[8] M. G. Jovanovic, and R. E. Betz, “Optimal Torque Controller for Synchronous Reluctance Motors”, IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 14, No. 4, pp. 10881093, December 1999. ##[9] R. E. Betz, R. Lagerquist, and M. Jovanovic, "Control of Synchronous Reluctance Machies", IEEE Trans. On Industry Application, vol. 29, No. 6, pp. 11101122, Nov. 1993. ##[10] S. Ichikawa, M. Tomita, S. Doki, and S. Okuma, "Sensorless Control of Synchronous Reluctance Motors Based on Extended EMF Models Considering Magnetic Saturation with Online Parameter Identification", IEEE Trans. On Industry Applications, vol. 42, No. 5, pp. 12641274, Sept./Oct. 2006. ##[11] R. Marino, and P. Tomei, Nonlinear Control Design, Prentice Hall, Inc, 1995. ##[12] R. Morales Caporal and M. Pacas, “Encoderless Predictive DTC for SynRM at Very Low and Zero Speed”, IEEE Trans. Ind. Elect., vol. 55, No. 12, pp. 44084416, Dec. 2008. ##[13] C. A. M. D. Ferraz, and C. R. de Souza, ''Considering Iron Losses in Modeling the Reluctance Synchronous Motor'', 7th International workshop on Advance Motion Control (AMC), pp. 251256, July 2002. ##[14] H. Abootorabi Zarchi, J. Soltani and Gh. R. Arab Markadeh, ''Adaptive IOFL Based Torque Control of SynRM without Mechanical Sensor'', IEEE Trans. On Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, No. 1, pp. 375384, January 2010. ##[15] H. Abootorabi Zarchi, Gh. R. Arab Markadeh, and J. Soltani, ''Direct torque and flux regulation of synchronous reluctance motor drives based on input–output feedback linearization'', Elsevier Journal, Energy Conversion and Management , vol. 51, pp. 71–80, January 2010. ##[16] H. Abootorabi Zarchi, Gh. R. Arab Markadeh, and J. Soltani, ''Direct Torque Control of Synchronous Reluctance Motor using Feedback Linearization Including Saturation and Iron Losses', European Power Electronics and Drives (EPE) Journal, vol. 19,No.3, pp. 5062, September 2009. ##[17] L. Tang, and M. F Rahman, “Investigation of an Improved Flux Estimator of a Direct Torque Controlled Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine Drive”, 35th Annual IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conf., Aachen, Germany, pp. 451457, 2004. ##[18] S. Mir, M.E Elbuluk, and D.S. Zinger, “PI and Fuzzy Estimators for Tuning the Stator Resistance in Indirect Torque Control of Induction Machines”, IEEE Tran. On Power Electronics, vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 279287, March 1998. ##[19] R. E. Betz, ''Theoretical Aspects of the Control of Synchronous Reluctance Machines'', IEE Proceeding B, vol. 139, No. 4, pp. 355364, July 1992. ##[20] R. E. Betz, and T. J. E., Miller, ''Aspects of the Control of Synchronous Reluctance Machines", Proceedings European Power Elect. Conf., pp. 456463, EPE 1991. ##[21] A. Chiba, and T. Fukao, ''A Closedloop Operation of Super HighSpeed Reluctance Motor for Quick Torque Response'', IEEE Trans. On Industry Applications, vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 600606, 1992. ##[22] T. A. Lipo, ''Synchronous Reluctance Machines A viable alternative for ac drives'', Electric Machines and Power Systems, vol. 19, pp. 659671, 1991. ##[23] J. Holtz, and J. Quan, “Drift and ParameterCompensated Flux Estimator for Persistent ZeroStatorFrequency Operation of SensorlessControlled Induction Motors”, IEEE Trans. On Ind. Appl., vol. 39, No. 4, pp. 10521060 , July/Aug. 2003. ##[24] V. d. Broeck, H. C. Skudelny, and G. V. Stanke, “Analysis and Realization of a Pulse Width Modulator Based on Voltage Space Vectors”, IEEE Trans. On Ind. Appl., vol. 24, No. 11, pp. 142150, 1988. ##[25] J. Holtz, “Sensorless Control of Induction Machines With or Without Signal Injection?”, IEEE Trans. On Ind. Elect. , vol. 53, No. 1, pp. 730, Feb. 2006. ##[26] M. Jafarboland, and H. Abootorabi Zarchi, EfficiencyOptimized Variable Structure Direct Torque Control for Synchronous Reluctance Motor Drives', Journal of Electrical Systems, vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 95107, 2012. ##]
A Novel Reconfiguration Mixed with Distributed Generation Planning via Considering Voltage Stability Margin
A Novel Reconfiguration Mixed with Distributed Generation Planning via Considering Voltage Stability Margin
2
2
In recent years, in Iran and other countries the power systems are going to move toward creating a competition structure for selling and buying electrical energy. These changes and the numerous advantages of DGs have made more incentives to use these kinds of generators than before. Therefore, it is necessary to study all aspects of DGs, such as size selection and optimal placement and impact of them on Distribution System (DS) reconfiguration. So, the problem of optimum reconfiguration and optimal location of DGs (DGs Planning) in DS is a task which must be solved in an optimal manner. This paper presents a novel approach for optimum reconfiguration and optimal location of DGs in distribution networks based on a hieratical twostage optimization problem to improve power system voltage stability margin and reduce active power losses. Hence, a toolbox has been developed to recognize loadability limit of distribution power systems based on Lagrangian optimization method. Finally, the simulations are carried out on 33, 69 bus IEEE distribution systems and demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.
1
In recent years, in Iran and other countries the power systems are going to move toward creating a competition structure for selling and buying electrical energy. These changes and the numerous advantages of DGs have made more incentives to use these kinds of generators than before. Therefore, it is necessary to study all aspects of DGs, such as size selection and optimal placement and impact of them on Distribution System (DS) reconfiguration. So, the problem of optimum reconfiguration and optimal location of DGs (DGs Planning) in DS is a task which must be solved in an optimal manner. This paper presents a novel approach for optimum reconfiguration and optimal location of DGs in distribution networks based on a hieratical twostage optimization problem to improve power system voltage stability margin and reduce active power losses. Hence, a toolbox has been developed to recognize loadability limit of distribution power systems based on Lagrangian optimization method. Finally, the simulations are carried out on 33, 69 bus IEEE distribution systems and demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.
23
34


M. H.
Hemmatpour
Corresponding Author, Mohammad Hasan Hemmatpour is MSC student with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University
of Kerman, Kerman, Iran (email: m.h.hematpour@gmail.com).
Corresponding Author, Mohammad Hasan Hemmatpour
Iran


M.
Mohammadian
Mohsen Mohammadian is Assistant Professor with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
(email: M.Mohammadian@uk.ac.ir).
Mohsen Mohammadian is Assistant Professor
Iran


M.
Rashidinejad
Masoud Rashidinejad is Associated Professor with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
(email: mrashidi@uk.ac.ir).
Masoud Rashidinejad is Associated Professor
Iran
Distribution System (DS)
Distributed Generations (DGs)
Graph Theory (GT)
Harmony Search (HS)
Hierarchical Optimization
Loadability limit
Matroid Theory
Reconfiguration
Voltage Stability (VS)
[[1] M. Assadian, M.M. Farsangi, H.Nezamabadipour, "GCPSO in cooperation with graph theory to distribution network reconfiguration for energy saving, "Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 51, pp. 418–427, Nov. 2010. ##[2] B. Enacheanu, B. Raison, R. Caire, O. Devaux, W. Bienia, N. HadjSaid, "Radial Network Reconfiguration Using Genetic Algorithm Based on the Matroid Theory," IEEE Trans. on power system, Vol. 23, NO. 1, Feb. 2008. ##[3] G. K. Viswanadha Raju, P. R. Bijwe, "An Efficient Algorithm for Minimum Loss Reconfiguration of Distribution System Based on Sensitivity and Heuristics, "IEEE Trans. power system, Vol. 23, No. 3, Aug. 2008. ##[4] A. Saffar, R. Hooshmand, A. Khodabakhshian, "A New Fuzzy Optimal Reconfiguration of Distribution Systems for Loss Reduction and Load Balancing Using Ant colony SearchBased Algorithm," Applied Soft Computing Journal (2010), doi:10.1016/j.asoc.2011.03.003. ##[5] S. Jazebi, S.H. Hosseinian, B. Vahidi, "DSTATCOM allocation in distribution networks considering reconfiguration using differential evolution algorithm," Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 52, pp. 2777–2783, Jan. 2011. ##[6] M.A. Kashem, V. Ganapathy, G.B. Jasmon, "Network reconfiguration for enhancement of voltage stability in distribution networks," Generation, Transmission and Distribution, IEE Proceedings, vol. 147, pp.171, May 2000. ##[7] B. Venkatesh, R. Ranjan, H.B Gooi, "Optimal reconfiguration of radial distribution systems to maximize loadability," Power Systems, IEEE Transactions, vol. 19, pp.260, Feb. 2004. ##[8] M.A.N. Guimaraes, J.F.C. Lorenzeti, C.A. Castro, "Reconfiguration of distribution systems for stability margin enhancement using Tabu search," in Proc. 2004 Power System Technology, PowerCon., pp.1556  1561 . ##[9] M. Arun, P. Aravindhababu, "A new reconfiguration scheme for voltage stability enhancement of radial distribution systems," Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 50 , pp. 2148–2151, May 2009. ##[10] N.C. Sahoo, K. Prasad, "A fuzzy genetic approach for network reconfiguration to enhance voltage stability in radial distribution systems," Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 47, pp. 3288–3306, Jan. 2006. ##[11] J. Olamaei, T. Niknam, G. Gharehpetian, "Application of particle swarm optimization for distribution feeder reconfiguration considering distributed generators," in Proc.2008 Applied Mathematics and Computation, pp. 575–586. ##[12] Wu YuanKang, Lee ChingYin, Liu LeChang, Tsai ShaoHong, "Study of Reconfiguration for the Distribution System With Distributed Generators,", Power Delivery, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 25 , pp. 1678 – 85, Jul. 2010. ##[13] N. Rugthaicharoencheep, S.Sirisumrannukul, "Feeder reconfiguration with dispatchable distributed generators in distribution system by tabu search,", in Proc. 2010 Universities Power Engineering Conf. (UPEC), 1 – 5. ##[14] M.R.Aghamohammadi, M.Mohammadian, "Loadability limit assessment in Iran Power Network with respect to voltage stability constrains,” in Proc. 1996 the 11th international Power System Conf., Tehran, Iran, p.p. 112. ##[15] M.R.Aghamohamadi, M.Mohammadian, and H.Saitoh, "Sensitivity Characteristic of Neural Network as a Tool for Analyzing and Improving Voltage Stability," in Proc. 2002 IEEE PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exhibition (Asia Pacific), pp. 1128 – 1132. ##[16] M.Mohammadian, "Power System Voltage stability and Security assessment by neural network technique," Ms Dissertation, Dept. Elect. Eng., K.N.Toosi University of technology, Iran, Tehran, 1997. ##[17] M. Mohammadian, M.R. Aghamohammadi, and S.M.T. Bathaee, "Power plants generation scheduling constrained to voltage stability limit based on sensivity Charachteristic Of Neural Network," in Proc. 2002 the 17th international Power System Conf., Tehran , Iran, pp. 110. ##[18] M.R. Aghamohammadi, M.Mohammadian, A. Golkar, "Generation scheduling constrained to voltage stability limit," in Proc. 2001 the 16th international power system conf., Tehran, Iran, pp. 19. ##[19] M. Rezaie Estabragh, M. Mohammadian, M. Rashidinejad, "An Application of ElitistBased Genetic Algorithm for SVC Placement Considering Voltage Stability, "International Review on Modeling and Simulations (LRE.MO.S.), Vole 5, pp. 938947, Oct. 2010. ##[20] R. Abul’Wafa, "A new heuristic approach for optimal reconfiguration in distribution systems," Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 81, pp. 282–289, Oct.2010. ##[21] A. Zangeneh, S. Jadid, “Fuzzy multi objective model for distributed generation expansion planning in uncertain environment," European Transactions ON Electrical Power, vol.21, pp. 129141, 2010. ##[22] K. Seok Lee, Z. Woo Geem, "A new metaheuristic algorithm for continuous engineering optimization: harmony search theory and practice," Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg. Vol. 194, pp. 3902–3933, May. 2004. ##[23] Z. W. Geem, J. H. Kim, G. V. Loganathan, "A new heuristic optimization algorithm: Harmony search, "Transaction of the society for modeling and simulation International, vol. 76, pp.6068, Feb. 2001 . ##[24] S. Kulluka, L. Ozbakira, A. Baykasoglub, "Selfadaptive global best harmony search algorithm for training neural networks," Procedia Computer Science, vol. 3, pp. 282–286, Sept. 2011. ##[25] QuanKe Pan, P.N. Suganthan, M. Fatih Tasgetiren, J.J. Liang, "A selfadaptive global best harmony search algorithm for continuous optimization problems," Applied Mathematics and Computation, vol. 216, pp. 830–848, May 2010. ##[26] Parikshit Yadav, Rajesh Kumar, S.K. Panda, C.S. Chang, "An Improved Harmony Search algorithm for optimal scheduling of the diesel generators in oil rig platforms," Energy Conversion and Management, vol.52, pp.893–902, 2011. ##[27] V. Ravikumar Pandi, Bijaya Ketan Panigrahi, "Dynamic economic load dispatch using hybrid swarm intelligence based harmony search algorithm", Expert Systems with Applications, vol. 38, pp.8509–8514, 2011. ##[28] Min Huang Guihua Bo Xingwei Wang Ip, W.H., "The optimization of routing in fourthparty logistics with soft time windows using harmony Search," in Proc. 2010 Natural Computation (ICNC), 2010 Sixth International Conf. pp.19. ##[29] O. Ceylan, A. Ozdemir, H. Dag, "Comparison of Post Outage Bus Voltage Magnitudes Estimated by Harmony Search and Differential Evolution Methods," in Proc. ISAP 2009, 15th International Conference on Intelligent System Applications to Power Systems, pp.18. ##[30] F. Harrou, A. Zeblah, "Harmony search algorithm optimization for preventivemaintenanceplanning for transmission Systems," in Proc. 2009International Conference on Advances in Computational Tools for Engineering Applications, pp.19. ##[31] J. B. Kruskal, Jr., "On the shortest spanning subtree of a graph and the traveling salesman problem," Amer. Math. Soc., vol. 7, no. 1, pp.48–50, Feb. 1956. ##[32] K.J. Binkley, "New Methods of Increasing the effectiveness of Particle Swarm optimization, " Ph.D. Dissertation, Keio University, 2008. ##[33] Hassler Whitney, "On the Abstract Properties of Linear Independence ", American Journal of Mathematics. Vol. 57, John Hopkins University Press, 1935. ##[34] J. A. Bondy and U. S. R. Murty, "Graph Theory with Applications," New York: Elsevier NorthHolland, 1976, pp. 134–169.##]
A Low Power Low Voltage Rail to Rail Constant gm Differential Amplifier with 150 dB CMRR and Enhanced Frequency Performance
A Low Power Low Voltage Rail to Rail Constant gm Differential Amplifier with 150 dB CMRR and Enhanced Frequency Performance
2
2
This paper proposes a low voltage (±0.55V supply voltage) low power (44.65µW) high common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) differential amplifier (d.a.) with rail to rail input common mode range (ICMR), constant transconductance (gm) and enhanced frequency performance. Its high performance is obtained using a simple negative averaging method so that it cancels out the common mode input signals at the same input terminals while preserving high frequency operation. The principle of operation, small signal analysis and the formula of its most important parameters are explained and derived. Simulation results with HSPICE using TSMC 0.18µm CMOS are presented showing rail to rail operation, CMRR of 150dB, voltage gain of 31.6dB, gain bandwidth of 95.8 MHz and input referred noise of 100.64nv/√Hz. Compared to conventional amplifier ones those are 94.4dB , 3.4dB, 1.62 times and 1.72 times better, respectively. The CMRR corner case simulation results are also provided showing from 52.1dB to 74.6dB improvement over conventional one.
1
This paper proposes a low voltage (±0.55V supply voltage) low power (44.65µW) high common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) differential amplifier (d.a.) with rail to rail input common mode range (ICMR), constant transconductance (gm) and enhanced frequency performance. Its high performance is obtained using a simple negative averaging method so that it cancels out the common mode input signals at the same input terminals while preserving high frequency operation. The principle of operation, small signal analysis and the formula of its most important parameters are explained and derived. Simulation results with HSPICE using TSMC 0.18µm CMOS are presented showing rail to rail operation, CMRR of 150dB, voltage gain of 31.6dB, gain bandwidth of 95.8 MHz and input referred noise of 100.64nv/√Hz. Compared to conventional amplifier ones those are 94.4dB , 3.4dB, 1.62 times and 1.72 times better, respectively. The CMRR corner case simulation results are also provided showing from 52.1dB to 74.6dB improvement over conventional one.
35
44


Leila
Safari
Leila Safari is with Electronic Research Center, Iran University of Science and Technology (email: leilasafari@yahoo.com).
Leila Safari is with Electronic Research
Iran


Seyed Javad
Azhari
Corresponding Author, Seyed Javad Azhari is with Electrical Engineering Faculty of Iran University of Science and Technology (email:
Azhari@iust.ac.ir).
Corresponding Author, Seyed Javad Azhari
Iran
azhari@iust.ac.ir
High CMRR Differential Amplifier
Low Voltage
low power
Rail to Rail
Quasi Floating Gate
[[1] J. RamirezAngulo, J. LopezMartin , R. Gonzalez Carvajal, "Very LowVoltage Analog Signal Processing Based on QuasiFloating Gate Transistors" IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits, Vol. 39, pp.434442, 2004. ##[2] S. S. Rajput, S. S. Jamuar "Low Voltage Analog Circuit Design Techniques" IEEE Circuits and Systems Magazine, Vol.2, pp. 2442, 2002. ##[3] S. Yan , E. SanchezSinencio"Low Voltage Analog Circuit Design Techniques: A Tutorial" IEICE Transaction on Analog Integrated circuits and Systems, pp. 17, 2000. ##[4] "International Technology Roadmap For Semiconductors" Available: “http://www.itrs.net/Links/2008ITRS/Update/2008_Update.pdf” ##[5] B.Nauta , A.John Annema "Analog/RF Circuit Design Techniques for Nanometer Scale IC Technology" in Proc. 2005, 35th European Conference on Solid State Device Research,pp.4554. ##[6] P. R.Kinget "Device Mismatch: An Analog Design Perspective "in Proc. 2007 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, pp.12451248. ##[7] J.M.Carrillo, J.F. Dugue Carrillo, G. Torelli, J.L.Ausin "1V Quasi constantgm input/output railtorail CMOS opamp" Integration, the VLSI Journal, Vol. 36, pp.161174, 2003. ##[8] J.M.Carrillo, J.F. Dugue Carrillo, J.L.Ausin, G. Torelli" Railtorail constantgm operational amplifier for video applications" Integration, the VLSI Journal, Vol. 37, pp.116, 2004. ##[9] V. Ivanov, J. Zhou, I. M.Filanovsky "A 100dB CMRR CMOS Operational Amplifier With SingleSupply Capability" IEEE Transactions on Circuits and SystemsII: Express Briefs, Vol.54, pp.397401, 2007. ##[10] R. Hogervorst, R. J. Wiegerlink, P. A. L. de Jong, J. Fonderie, R. F. Wassenaar, J. H. Huijsing "CMOS lowvoltage operational amplifiers with constantGm railtorail input stage" in Proc. 1992 IEEE Conference on Circuits and Systems, Vol.6, pp.28762879. ##[11] W. C. Wu, W. J. Helms, J. A. Kuhn, B. E. Byrkett "A digital process compatible highdrive CMOS op amp with tailtorail input and output ranges" in Proc. 1990 IEEE 33rd Midwest conference on Circuits and Systems, Vol.2, pp.692695. ##[12] K. Gulati , H. S. Lee " A high swing CMOS telescopic operational amplifier" IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits, Vol.33, pp. 2010–2019, 1998. ##[13] J. RamírezAngulo, A. J. LopezMartin, R. G. Carvajal "Single transistor high impedance tail current source with extended common mode input range and reduced supply requirements" IEEE Transaction on Circuits and Systems II, Exp. Briefs, Vol.54, pp. 581–585, 2007. ##[14] M. Di Ciano, C. Marzoccal, A. Tauro "A Low Voltage, High Output Impedance CMOS Current Source" in Proc. 2004 IEEE International Conference on Semiconductor Electronics, pp.59. ##[15] J.R.Angulo, S.Balasubramanian, A.J. LópezMartin, R. G. Carvajal, "Low Voltage Differential Input Stage With Improved CMRR and True RailtoRail Common Mode Input Range" IEEE Transactions on Circuits and SystemsII: Express Briefs, Vol. 55, pp.12291233, 2008. ##[16] K. Nagaraj "Constanttransconductance CMOS amplifier input stage with railtorail input common mode voltage range"IEEE Transaction on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, Vol. 42, pp. 366–368, 1995. ##[17] M. M. Amourah, S. Q. Malik, R. L. Geiger "A New Design Technique for RailtoRail Amplifiers" in Proc. 2005 IEEE 48th Symposium on Circuits and Systems, pp. 263266. ##[18] C. W. Lu and C. M. Hsiao "0.9 V railtorail constant gm CMOS amplifier input stage" Electronics Letters, Vol. 45, pp. 11451146, 2009. ##[19] J. F. DuqueCarrillo José L. Ausín, G. Torelli, J.M. Valverde , M. A. Domínguez"1V RailtoRail Operational Amplifiers in Standard CMOS Technology" IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits, Vol. 35, pp.3344, 2000. ##[20] J. R. Angulo, S. C. Choi, G. GonzalezAltamirano "Low voltage OTA architectures using multiple input floating gate transistors" in Proc. 1995IEEE 38th Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems,Vol.1, pp.158161. ##[21] J. R.Angulo, R. G. Carvajal, J. Tombs, , A. Torralba, "Low voltage CMOS opamp with railtorail signal swing for continuous time signal processing using multipleinput floatinggate transistors" IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II, Analog and Digital Signal Processing, Vol. 48 , pp.110–116, 2001. ##[22] E.R. Ruotsalainen , K.E. Lasanen, J.Kostamovaara "A 1.2 V Micropower CMOS Op Amp with FloatingGate Input Transistors" in Proc. 2000 IEEE 43rd Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems, Vol.2, pp.794797. ##[23] T.W. Fischer, A.I. Karsilayan, E. SánchezSinencio, "A RailtoRail Amplifier Input Stage With 0.35%gm Fluctuation" IEEE Transaction on Circuits and SystemsI: Regular Paper, Vol. 52, pp.271282, 2005. ##[24] J.R.Angulo, A. J. LopezMartin, A. Garimella, L. M. KalyaniGarimella , R.G. Carvajal ,"LowVoltage, LowPower RailtoRail two stage Opamp with Dynamic Biasing and no Miller compensation" in Proc. 2007 IEEE 50th Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems, pp.2528. ##[25] E.R.Villegas, H. Barnes "Solution to Trapped Charge in FGMOS Transistors" Electronics Letters, Vol.39, pp. 14161417, 2003. ##[26] H.Moradzadeh, S.J. Azhari,"High Performance Low Voltage QFG Based DVCC and a Novel Fully Differential SC Integrator Based on It" IEICE Electronics Express, Vol.5, pp.10171023, 2008. ##[27] M.Bikumandla, J.R.Angulo, Carlos Urquidi, R. G. Carvajal, A.J.LopezMartin "CMOS amplifiers Using MOS transistors in Subthreshold region" IEICE Electronic Express, Vol.1, pp. 339345, 2004. ##]
A Novel ±0.5V Ultra High Current Drive and Output Voltage Headroom Current Output Stage with Very High Output Impedance
A Novel ±0.5V Ultra High Current Drive and Output Voltage Headroom Current Output Stage with Very High Output Impedance
2
2
A novel ultrahigh compliance, low power, very accurate and high output impedance current output stage (COS) with extremely high output current drive capability is proposed in this paper. The principle of operation of this unique structure is discussed, its most important formulas are derived and its outstanding performance is verified by HSPICE simulation in TSMC 0.18µm CMOS, BSIM3, and Level49 technology. This deliberately composed structure utilizes a well combination (for a mutual auto control action) of negative and positive feedbacks to achieve ever demanded merits such as very low power of 150µW, ultra high ratio of 3000 for output current over the bias current (which is selected to be 0.5µA) at low THD of 20dB and very high output impedance of 5GΩ with power supplies of ±0.5V when operating at class AB mode. Simulation results with ±0.5V power supply shows an absolute output voltage dynamic range of 0.9V which interestingly provides the highest yet reported output voltage compliance for Current mode building blocks implemented by regular CMOS technology. Full process, voltage, and temperature variation (PVT) analysis of the circuit is also investigated in order to approve the well robustness of the structure. The transient stepwise response is also done to verify the proposed COS stability.
1
A novel ultrahigh compliance, low power, very accurate and high output impedance current output stage (COS) with extremely high output current drive capability is proposed in this paper. The principle of operation of this unique structure is discussed, its most important formulas are derived and its outstanding performance is verified by HSPICE simulation in TSMC 0.18µm CMOS, BSIM3, and Level49 technology. This deliberately composed structure utilizes a well combination (for a mutual auto control action) of negative and positive feedbacks to achieve ever demanded merits such as very low power of 150µW, ultra high ratio of 3000 for output current over the bias current (which is selected to be 0.5µA) at low THD of 20dB and very high output impedance of 5GΩ with power supplies of ±0.5V when operating at class AB mode. Simulation results with ±0.5V power supply shows an absolute output voltage dynamic range of 0.9V which interestingly provides the highest yet reported output voltage compliance for Current mode building blocks implemented by regular CMOS technology. Full process, voltage, and temperature variation (PVT) analysis of the circuit is also investigated in order to approve the well robustness of the structure. The transient stepwise response is also done to verify the proposed COS stability.
45
53


Hassan
Faraji Baghtash
Corresponding Author, Hassan Faraji Baghtash is with Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST) Electrical and Electronic
Engineering Faculty (corresponding author phone: +989128016637; email: hfaraji@iust.ac.ir)
Corresponding Author, Hassan Faraji Baghtash
Iran
hfaraji@iust.ac.ir


Ahmad
Ayatollahiii
Ahmad Ayatollahi is with Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST) Electrical and Electronic Engineering Faculty (email:
ayatollahi@iust.ac.ir).
Ahmad Ayatollahi is with Iran University
Iran


Khalil
Monfaredi
Khalil Monfaredi is with Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST) Electrical and Electronic Engineering Faculty/ Electronics
Research Center (email: khmonfaredi@iust.ac.ir)
Manuscript received April 23, 2011.
Khalil Monfaredi is with Iran University
Iran
khmonfaredi@iust.ac.ir
Ultralow voltage
Ultrahigh compliance
Current output stage
Current amplifier
Class AB
High current capability
High output impedance
Low THD
[[1] C. Toumazou, F. J. Lidgey and D. G. High, Analog IC Design: The Current Mode Approach. London: Peter Peregrinus Ltd., 1993. ##[2] ChangHyeon Lee, Jack Cornish, Kelly McClellan, and John Choma, “Currentmode approach for wide gainbandwidth product architecture,” IEEE trans. on CASII, vol. 45, pp. 229 – 232, May 1998. ##[3] G. Palmisano, C. Palumbo, and S. Pennisi, CMOS Current Amplifiers. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999. ##[4] Luis N. Alves, Rui L. Aguiar, “A differential currentconveyor based buffer for highbandwidth, lowsignal applications,” in Proc. 1999 IEEE Conference on Electronics, Circuits and System (ICECS'99), pp. 903 – 906. ##[5] Hesham F. Hamed, Ahmed ElGaafary and Mostafa S. A. Elhakeem, “A new differential current conveyor and its application as a four quadrant multiplier,” in Proc. 2001 IEEE Int. Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems, pp. 569572. ##[6] Salvatore Pennisi, “A lowvoltage design approach for class AB currentmode circuits,” IEEE Transactions on circuits and systems—II: Analog and digital signal processing, vol. 49, pp. 273–279, April 2002. ##[7] R. Sennani, and S. S. Gupta, “Novel sinusoidal oscillators using only unity voltage followers and current followers,” IEICE Electron. Express, vol. 1, pp. 404409, October 2004. ##[8] Y. S. Hwang, L. P. Liao, C. C. Tsai, W. T. Lee, and T. Y. Lee, “A new CCIIbased pipelined analog to digital converter,” in Proc. 2005 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), Japan, pp. 61706173. ##[9] M. Alioto, G. Palumbo, Model and design of Bipolar and MOS CurrentMode logic: CML, ECL and SCL Digital Circuits. Dordrecht: Springer, 2005. ##[10] Jaroslav Koton, Kamil Vrba, and Pavel Hanak, “Frequency filter with current conveyors for signal processing of databuses working in the currentmode,” in Proc. 2006 International Conference on Networking, International Conference on Systems and International Conference on Mobile Communications and Learning Technologies (ICNICONSMCL'06), pp. 156159. ##[11] Mahmut Tokmakci, “The comparative analysis of current mirror based cmos current amplifiers,” IEICE Electronics Express, vol. 4, pp. 411416, July 2007. ##[12] M. Altun, and H. Kuntman, “Design of a fully differential current mode operational amplifier with improved input output impedances and its filter applications,” International Journal of Electronics and Communication, vol. 62, pp. 239244, March 2008. ##[13] Montree Siripruchyanun, and Winai Jaikla, “CMOS currentcontrolled current differencing transconductance amplifier and applications to analog signal processing,” Int. J. Electron. Commun (AEÜ), vol. 62, pp. 277 – 287, Dec 2008. ##[14] H. P. Chen, and P. L. Chu, “Versatile universal electronically tunable current mode filter using CCIIs,” IEICE Electronics Express, vol. 6, pp. 122128, 2009. ##[15] Mustafa Altun, and Hakan Kuntman, “Design of a fully differential current mode operational amplifier with improved input–output impedances and its filter applications,” Int. J. Electron. Commun. (AEÜ), vol. 62, pp. 239 – 244, March 2008. ##[16] G. Palmisano, G. Palumbo, and S. Pennisi, “Harmonic distortion on class AB CMOS current output stages,” IEEE Transactions on circuits and systems—II: analog and digital signal processing, vol. 45, pp. 243250, February 1998. ##[17] D. R. Bhaskar, V. K. Sharma, M. Monis, S. M. I. Rizvi. “New currentmode universal biquad filter,” Microelectron. J., vol. 30, pp. 837–839, January 1999. ##[18] G. Palmisano, G. Palumbo, and S. Pennisi “High linearity CMOS current output stage,” Electronics letters, vol. 31, pp. 789790, 1995. ##[19] Giuseppe Di Cataldo, Rosario Mita, Salvatore Pennisi, “Highspeed CMOS unitygain current amplifier,” Microelectronics Journal, vol. 37, pp. 1086–1091, June 2006. ##[20] Arie F. Arbel, “Output stage for currentmode feedback amplifiers, theory and applications,” Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, vol. 2, pp. 243255, Sep. 1992. ##[21] I. Mucha, “Current operational amplifiers: Basic architecture, properties, exploitation and future,” Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, vol. 7, pp. 243255, 1995. ##[22] S. Pennisi, M. Piccioni, G. Scotti, A. Trifiletti, “HighCMRR current amplifier architecture and its cmos implementation,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Brief, vol. 53, pp. 11181122, Oct. 2006. ##[23] F. Centurelli, A. D. Grasso, S. Pennisi, G. Scotti, and A. Trifiletti, “CMOS highCMRR current output stages,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs, vol. 54, pp. 745749, Sep. 2007. ##[24] F. Centurelli, S. Pennisi, and A. Trifiletti, “Current output stage with improved CMRR,” in Proc. 2003 IEEE International Conference on Circuits and Systems, pp. 543  546. ##[25] M. H. Kashtiban, and S. J. Azhari, “A novel high CMRR low voltage current output stage,” in Proc. 2009 International Symposium on Signals, Circuits and Systems (ISSCS), pp. 14. ##[26] G. Palumbo, and S. Pennisi, “Lowvoltage class AB CMOS current output stage,” Electronics Letters, vol. 35, pp. 13291330, 1999. ##[27] A. Zeki, and H. Kuntman, “Highlinearity lowvoltage selfcascode class AB CMOS current output stage,” in Proc. 2000 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), Geneva, pp. 257260. ##[28] S. J. Azhari, H. F. Baghtash, and K. Monfaredi, “A novel ultrahigh compliance, high output impedance low power very accurate high performance current mirror,” Microelectronics Journal, Vol.42, No. 2, Pages 432439, February 2011.##]
Design and Construction of a Novel Tactile Sensor for Measuring ContactForce, Based on Piezoelectric Effect
Design and Construction of a Novel Tactile Sensor for Measuring ContactForce, Based on Piezoelectric Effect
2
2
In this paper, design and construction of a tactile sensor for measuring contactforce is presented. Mechanism of measuring contactforce in this tactile sensor is based on impedance changing of piezoelectric crystal and voltage of different points in circuit as a result of applying force on the crystal. By considering a specific point in the circuit and recording the changes of its voltage, magnitude of applied force can be estimated. Structure of the sensor consists of a diskshaped piezoelectric crystal that its diameter is 2 cm, its thickness is 2 mm and its resonance frequency is 135 kHz. This crystal is placed in a metal chamber. A spring is on the crystal on which a moving part is installed for applying force. One of the characteristics of the sensor is that its size and shape can be easily tailored to the different applications. By miniaturizing this sensor and using biocompatible materials, it is applicable in different fields of medicine such as minimally invasive surgery (MIS).
1
In this paper, design and construction of a tactile sensor for measuring contactforce is presented. Mechanism of measuring contactforce in this tactile sensor is based on impedance changing of piezoelectric crystal and voltage of different points in circuit as a result of applying force on the crystal. By considering a specific point in the circuit and recording the changes of its voltage, magnitude of applied force can be estimated. Structure of the sensor consists of a diskshaped piezoelectric crystal that its diameter is 2 cm, its thickness is 2 mm and its resonance frequency is 135 kHz. This crystal is placed in a metal chamber. A spring is on the crystal on which a moving part is installed for applying force. One of the characteristics of the sensor is that its size and shape can be easily tailored to the different applications. By miniaturizing this sensor and using biocompatible materials, it is applicable in different fields of medicine such as minimally invasive surgery (MIS).
55
60


N.
Nasserii
N. Nasseri is with the Department of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran (email:
nassim_nasseri@aut.ac.ir).
N. Nasseri is with the Department of Biomedical
Iran


S.
Najarian
Corresponding Author, S. Najarian is with the Department of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran (email:
najarian @aut.ac.ir).
Corresponding Author, S. Najarian is with
Iran


A.
Tavakoli Golpaygani
A. Tavakoli Golpaygani is with the Department of Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran (email:
atavakoli@pearl.sums.ac.ir).
A. Tavakoli Golpaygani is with the Department
Iran


G.
Darb Emamieh
G. Darb Emamieh is with the Department of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran (email:
goldis_emamieh@aut.ac.ir).
G. Darb Emamieh is with the Department of
Iran
TACTLE SENSOR
Contact Force
Piezoelectric
[[1] Najarian, S.; Dargahi, J.; Zheng X.Z.; “A Novel Method in Measuring the Stiffness of Sensed Objects with Applications for Biomedical Robotic Systems”,Int J Med Robotics Comput, vol 2, p.p. 8490, 2006. ##[2] Omata, S.; Terunuma, Y.; “New Tactile Sensor Like The Human Hand and Its Applications”, Actuat APhys, vol. 35, p.p. 915, 1992. ##[3] Dargahi, J.; Najarian, S.; “An Endoscopic Force Position Grasper with Minimum Sensors”, Can J Electr Copmut Eng. , vol. 28, p.p. 155161, 2004. ##[4] Dargahi, J.; Najarian, S.; “Analysis of a Membrane Type PolymericBased Tactile Sensor for Biomedical and Medical Robotic Applications”, Sensor Mat, vol. 16, p.p. 2541, 2004. ##[5] Dargahi, J.; “An Endoscopic and Robotic Toothlike Compliance and Roughness Tactile Sensor”, J Mech Des, vol. 124, p.p. 576582, 2002. ##[6] Lee, M.H.; Nicholls, H.R.; “Tactile Sensing for Mechatronics, aStateoftheArt Survey”, Mechatronics, vol. 9, p.p. 131, 1999. ##[7] Nicholls, H.R.; “Advanced Tactile Sensing for Robotics”, World Scientific, Singapore, 1992. ##[8] Widmann, G.; “ImageGuided Surgery and Medical Robatics in the Cranial Area”, Biomed Imaging Intervention J, vol.3, 2007. ##[9] Wilson, J.S., “Sensor Technology Handbook”, Elsevier, Newnes, 2005. ##[10] Guyton, A.; Hall J.; “Text Book of Medical Physiology”, 9th edition, 1996. ##[11] Crescini, D.; marioli, D.; Taroni, A.; “Piezoelectric ThickFilm Fluid Density Sensor Based on Resonance Vibration”, IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement, Technology Conference, Minnesota: USA, 1998. ##[12] Zheyao, W.; Huizhong Z.; Yonggui D.; Jinsong, W.; Guanping, F.; “Forcefrequency Coefficiant of Symmetrical Incompelete Circular Quartz Crystal Resonator”, IEEE T Ultrason Ferr, vol. 48, No. 5, 2001. ##[13] Hyung Joon, K.; YoungBum, K.; Juebum, P.; Tae Song K.; “Biological Element Detection Sensor Application of Micro Machined PZT Thick Film Cantilever”, Proceedings of IEEE, vol.2, p.p. 10541058, 2003. ##[14] Omata, S.; Murayama, Y.; E.Constatinou, C.; “Real Time Robotic Tactile Sensor System for the Determination of the Physical Properties of Biomaterials”, Sensor Actuat APhys, vol. 112, p.p. 278285, 2004. ##[15] Ozeri, S.; Shmilovitz, D.; “Static Force Measurement by Piezoelectric Sensors”, ISCA, 2006. ##[16] Omata, S.; Murayama, Y.; “Considerations in the Design and Sensitivity Optimization of the Micro Tactile Sensor”, IEEE T Ultrason Ferr, vol. 52, 2005. ##[17] Bentley, J.; “Principles of Measurement Systems”, Longman Singapoure, 1988. ##[18] Fraden, J.; “Hand Book of Modern Sensors (Physics, Designs, and Applications)”, 3rd edition, California: San Diego, 2003. ##[19] Dario, P.; “Tactile SensingTechnology and Applications”, Sensor Actuat APhys, vol. 26, p.p. 251261, 1991. ##[20] Dargahi, J.; Najarian, S.; “Advances in Tactile Sensors Design/Manufacturing and Its Impact on Robotics Applicationsa review”, Ind Robot, vol. 32, p.p. 268281, 2005. ##[21] Dargahi, J.; “Piezoelectric And Pyroelectric Transient Signal Aanalysis For Detecting The Temprature Of An Object For Robotic Tactile Sensing”, Sensor Actuat APhys, vol. 71, p.p. 8997, 1998. ##[22] Ferri, V.; Murioli, D.; Taroni, A.; “ThickFilm Resonant PiezoLayers as New Gravimetric Sensors”, Meas Sci Technol, vol. 8, p.p. 4248, 1997. ##[23] Arnau, A.; “Piezoelectric Transducers and Applications”, Springer Verlog, Berlin Heidelberg, 2004. ##[24] Reviakin, A.N.; Morozov, F.; Rosseti, F.; “Effects of Finite Crystal Size in the Quartz Crystal Micro Balance with Dissipation Measurement System: Implications for Data Analysis”, J Appl Phys, vol. 95, 2004. ##[25] Benes, E.; Groschl, M.; Burger, W.; “Sensors Based on Piezoelectric Resonators”, Sensors and Actuators–A, vol. 48, p.p. 121, 1995. ##[26] Murali Krishna, G.; Rajanna, K.; “Tactile Sensor Based On Piezoelectric Resonance”, Indian Institute of Science, 2002.##]
Analysis of the Frequency Effects on Design and BackIron Characteristics of DoubleLayer Secondary SingleSided Linear Induction Motors
Analysis of the Frequency Effects on Design and BackIron Characteristics of DoubleLayer Secondary SingleSided Linear Induction Motors
2
2
Input frequency is one of the important variables in design and performance analysis of singlesided linear induction motors (SLIMs). Changing the frequency changes both the dimension of the SLIM in design process and the performance of the designed motor. The frequency influences the induced eddy currents in the secondary sheet as well as saturation level of the secondary backiron. In this paper, the effect of the input frequency on the dimensions of the SLIM is investigated in the design process. Then, the frequency effects on the magnetic characteristics of the secondary backiron as well as the SLIM performance are analyzed for a designed motor. Finally, the analytical results are confirmed by 2D timestepping finite element method.
1
Input frequency is one of the important variables in design and performance analysis of singlesided linear induction motors (SLIMs). Changing the frequency changes both the dimension of the SLIM in design process and the performance of the designed motor. The frequency influences the induced eddy currents in the secondary sheet as well as saturation level of the secondary backiron. In this paper, the effect of the input frequency on the dimensions of the SLIM is investigated in the design process. Then, the frequency effects on the magnetic characteristics of the secondary backiron as well as the SLIM performance are analyzed for a designed motor. Finally, the analytical results are confirmed by 2D timestepping finite element method.
61
68


A.
Shirii
Corresponding Author, A. Shiri is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran (email:
abbas_shiri@iust.ac.ir).
Corresponding Author, A. Shiri is with the
Iran


A.
Shoulaieii
A. Shoulaie is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran (email:
Shoulaie@iust.ac.ir).
A. Shoulaie is with the Department of Electrical
Iran
Input frequency
secondary backiron saturation
Efficiency
power factor
normal force
output thrust
[[1] S. Nonaka and T. Higuchi, “Elements of linear induction motor design for urban transit”, IEEE Trans. Magn.,Vol. 23, No. 5, pp. 30023004 , September 1989. ##[2] S. Yoon, J. Hur and D. Hyun, "A method of optimal design of singlesided linear induction motor for transit", IEEE Trans. Magn.,Vol. 33, No. 5, pp. 42154217, September 1997. ##[3] W. Xu, J. Zhu, L, Tan, Y. Guo, S, Wang, and Y. Wang, “Optimal design of a linear induction motor applied in transportation”, IEEE Int. Conf. on Ind. Tech., pp. 16, 2009. ##[4] D. Yumei and J. Nenggiang, “Research on characteristics of singlesided linear induction motors for urban transit”, IEEE Int. Con. on Elect. Machines and Systems, ICEMS, pp.: 14, 2009. ##[5] S. Osawa, M. Wada, M. Karita, D. Ebihara and T. Yokoi, “Lightweight type linear induction motor and its characteristics”, IEEE Trans. Magn.,Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 3003–3005, September 1992. ##[6] M. Kitamura, N. Hino, H. Nihei and M. 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